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Unit 11 Grammar. Present and past participle phrases. Present participle phrases. A present participle phrase begins with a verb ending in -ing . It is separated from the main part of the sentence by a comma.

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Unit 11 Grammar

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Unit 11

Grammar

Present and past participle phrases


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Present participle phrases


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A present participle phrase begins with a verb ending in -ing. It is separated from the main part of the sentence by a comma.

A present participle phrase tells us more about the subject of the main part of the sentence. The subject of the two parts of the sentence must be the same.

He enjoyed the music and (he) began to tap his fingers on his knees.

Enjoying the music, he began to tap his fingers on his knees.

She felt very sad, so she cried.

Feeling very sad, she cried.


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We can use a present participle phrase to show:

1that two actions are happening at the same time.

The girl sat down and cried.

Sitting down, the girl cried.

2that one action happens before another.

After he ordered his food, he started to read the newspaper.

Ordering his food, he started to read the newspaper.

3the reason why something happens.

He felt hungry, so he ate three bowls of rice.

Feeling hungry, he ate three bowls of rice.


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Present participle phrases

Practice


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Rewrite the following sentences beginning with a present participle phrase.

1He felt very sleepy, so he fell asleep in class.

2Mandy won the writing competition and she felt very happy.

3After Ray finished his homework, he played football with his friends.

4Gigi went to bed very late last night, so she slept until midday.

5Flora ran into the room and closed the door.

6When she saw a snake under her desk, she screamed.

7She thought the soft toy was very cute, so she bought it.

8Bobby fell off the bed and hurt himself.

Feeling very sleepy, he fell asleep in class.

Winning the writing competition, Mandy felt very happy.

Finishing his homework, Ray played football with his friends.

Going to bed very late last night, Gigi slept until midday.

Running into the room, Flora closed the door.

Seeing a snake under her desk, she screamed.

Thinking the soft toy was very cute, she bought it.

Falling off the bed, Bobby hurt himself.


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Past participle phrases


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A past participle phrase begins with a verb ending in -ed or the past participle of an irregular verb, e.g. broken, seen. It is separated from the main part of a sentence by a comma.

A past participle phrase tells us the reason why something happens, while the main part of the sentence shows the result. Like present participle phrases, the subject of the two parts of the sentence must be the same.


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The book was written for children, so it was very easy to understand.

Written for children,

the book was very easy to understand.

reason

result

Tony was interested in singing, so he joined the choir.

Interested in singing,

Tony joined the choir.

reason

result


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Past participle phrases

Practice


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Rewrite the following sentences beginning with a past participle phrase.

1He was bored by the speaker, so he fell asleep.

2Kelly felt very happy because she was praised by her teacher.

3Jo was invited to a birthday party, so she put on her new dress.

4Betty could not sleep because she was worried about her exams.

5The baby cried loudly because he was woken up by a loud noise.

6Lily was scared by the snake and shook for half an hour.

7She was attracted by the colour of the soft toy, so she bought it.

8Helen took a cooking course because she was interested in cooking.

Bored by the speaker, he fell asleep.

Praised by her teacher, Kelly felt very happy.

Invited to a birthday party, Jo put on her new dress.

Worried about her exams, Betty could not sleep.

Woken up by a loud noise, the baby cried loudly.

Scared by the snake, Lily shook for half an hour.

Attracted by the colour of the soft toy, she bought it.

Interested in cooking, Helen took a cooking course.


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