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The EU and the Monetary Union. History 101. September 1946: Winston Churchill calls for "a kind of United States of Europe" as the only means of re-building society and creating a third force, independent of the newly dominant super-powers of the Soviet Union and the United States of America.

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History 101

September 1946:

Winston Churchill calls for "a kind of United States of Europe" as the only means of re-building society and creating a third force, independent of the newly dominant super-powers of the Soviet Union and the United States of America.

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The Treaty of Rome:1957

EC is born


The Netherlands





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The Treaty of Rome: Initial goals

Free trade

Deregulation of capital markets

Free flow of labor

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Where was Britain?

UK was supporting EFTA

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What was the difference between EU and EFTA?

Different countries :)

EU countries had no barriers to intra-EU trade and one set of common import duties and trade policies with respect to third countries.

EFTA countries had no barriers to intra-EFTA trade, but retained independence in setting their trade policy with respect to third countries

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The Brussels Agreement: 1962

Import duties and taxes to protect European farmers

Price controls on food products

Subsidies to European farmers

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EU expansion

1972: Denmark, Ireland, and UK

1980: Greece

1986: Spain and Portugal

1995: Austria, Finland, and Sweden

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EU expansion: 2004

Czech Republic










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EU expansion: 2007



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EU objectives today

To promote economic and social progress

To assert the identity of the European Union on the international scene

To introduce European citizenship

(which does not replace national citizenship but complements it and confers a number of civil and politic rights on European citizens)

To develop an area of freedom, security and justice

To maintain and build on established EU law

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Organization of EU

European Parliament

European Executive Commission

European Council

European Court of Justice

European Court of Auditors

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European Parliament (Strasbourg)

It exercises democratic supervision over the Commission

It shares with the Council the power to legislate

It shares budgetary authority with the Council

Elected every five years by direct universal suffrage - party (not country) representation

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European Commission (Brussels)

The Commission is the Union's executive body

It represents the Union on the international stage and negotiates international agreements

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European Council (Brussels)

The Council is the EU's main decision-making body

Decision making: Consensus

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Court of Justice (Luxembourg)

The Court of Justice ensures that Community law is uniformly interpreted and effectively applied.

It has jurisdiction in disputes involving Member States, EU institutions, businesses and individuals

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Court of Auditors (Luxembourg)

It sees that financial management of the EU budget has been sound.

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European Central Bank

The European Central Bank frames and implements European monetary policy

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Decision making

By consensus

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The Accord of Nice on EU expansion and institutional reform

Expansion into Eastern Europe

Institutional reform:

Qualified majority (at least 14 countries and 62% of total population) instead of unanimity in making decisions, in 39 areas of interest

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  • Traditional EU policy areas

  • Coordination of economic policy (I-15)‏

  • Special rules for the Euro zone (I-15.1 and protocol)‏

  • Common foreign and security policy, and gradually a common defense Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (I-42)‏

  • EU negotiates international agreements on behalf of all member states in areas where EU can legislate internally

  • Legal personality (I-7, I-40, I-41, I-42)‏

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  • Customs Union

  • Competition rules for the functioning of the internal market

  • Monetary policy for the Euro countries

  • Conservation of marine biological resources

  • Common commercial policy

  • International agreements = “legal personality”

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Points of contention

  • Length and complexity: It is very long, at over 60,000 words compared to the 4,600-word US Constitution

  • Qualified majority voting

  • Union law and national law

  • Trappings of statehood: the TCE introduces a number of elements that are traditionally the province of sovereign states: flag, motto, anthem

  • Lack of democracy

  • Secularism

  • Militarism

  • Economic policy

  • Human rights

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The Treaty of Lisbon (13 December 2007)

  • A strengthened European Parliament

  • Rules for withdrawal from the Union

  • Qualified majority voting in the Council & double majority (in 2014): 55% of the Member States representing at least 65% of the Union’s population

  • The function of President of the European Council

  • Charter of Fundamental Rights (civil, political, economic and social rights) into European primary law: binding legal force

  • New provisions on civil protection, humanitarian aid and public health

  • A new High Representative for the Union in Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, new European External Action Service, single legal personality for the Union

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EU in 2009