The EU and the Monetary Union. History 101. September 1946: Winston Churchill calls for "a kind of United States of Europe" as the only means of re-building society and creating a third force, independent of the newly dominant super-powers of the Soviet Union and the United States of America.
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Winston Churchill calls for "a kind of United States of Europe" as the only means of re-building society and creating a third force, independent of the newly dominant super-powers of the Soviet Union and the United States of America.
EC is born
Deregulation of capital markets
Free flow of labor
UK was supporting EFTA
Different countries :)
EU countries had no barriers to intra-EU trade and one set of common import duties and trade policies with respect to third countries.
EFTA countries had no barriers to intra-EFTA trade, but retained independence in setting their trade policy with respect to third countries
Import duties and taxes to protect European farmers
Price controls on food products
Subsidies to European farmers
1972: Denmark, Ireland, and UK
1986: Spain and Portugal
1995: Austria, Finland, and Sweden
To promote economic and social progress
To assert the identity of the European Union on the international scene
To introduce European citizenship
(which does not replace national citizenship but complements it and confers a number of civil and politic rights on European citizens)
To develop an area of freedom, security and justice
To maintain and build on established EU law
European Executive Commission
European Court of Justice
European Court of Auditors
It exercises democratic supervision over the Commission
It shares with the Council the power to legislate
It shares budgetary authority with the Council
Elected every five years by direct universal suffrage - party (not country) representation
The Commission is the Union's executive body
It represents the Union on the international stage and negotiates international agreements
The Council is the EU's main decision-making body
Decision making: Consensus
The Court of Justice ensures that Community law is uniformly interpreted and effectively applied.
It has jurisdiction in disputes involving Member States, EU institutions, businesses and individuals
It sees that financial management of the EU budget has been sound.
The European Central Bank frames and implements European monetary policy
Expansion into Eastern Europe
Qualified majority (at least 14 countries and 62% of total population) instead of unanimity in making decisions, in 39 areas of interest