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Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in 4A and 5A High Schools in Texas UIL Region IV Fall 2004

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Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in 4A and 5A High Schools in Texas UIL Region IV Fall 2004. By Carolina Espinoza Public Health Internship - Spring 2005. Objective.

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slide1

Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcusaureus in 4A and 5A High Schools in Texas UIL Region IV Fall 2004

By

Carolina Espinoza

Public Health Internship - Spring 2005

objective
Objective
  • Determine the prevalence of MRSA infections in Texas 4A and 5A UIL Region IV High Schools by surveying Licensed Athletic Trainers through mail and phone questionnaires.
  • Investigate which athletic program sectors are affected.
important facts
Important Facts
  • Staphylococcus aureus (Staph)

- Common bacteria

- Acquired mainly through direct contact (individuals and objects)

- Asymptomatic carriers

- Found in nose, armpit, groin, and other similar areas

-Causes soft tissue infections such as boils and impetigo

- Can cause pneumonia and bloodstream infections

- Treatable with antibiotics

methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus mrsa
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcusaureus (MRSA)
  • MRSA

- Cannot be treated with common penicillin-like antibiotics

- In the past confined to hospitals, nursing homes, long-term care facilities

  • CA-MRSA = Community-Associated MRSA

- Movement into the community

- Affecting athletes

history of staph mrsa in athletes
History of Staph & MRSA in Athletes
  • 1984 - rugby team in London
  • 1986 - outbreak of boils in football and basketball Kentucky
  • 1993 - 1st case of MRSA in a wrestling team in Vermont
  • 2002 - 03 – MRSA boom!!!

-Los Angeles county: athletes & county jail

-Colorado, Indiana, and Pennsylvania – fencers, football, & wrestlers

  • 2004 - 05 – high school, college, professional football and basketball
groups in the study
Groups in the Study

Athletic Program Sectors

  • Athletes

Football

Volleyball

Wrestling

Cross Country

  • Non-Athlete Students = student team managers and student athletic trainers
  • Adults = coaches, athletic trainers, and other staff working closely with athletes
slide15

Number of Skin, Staph, and MRSA Infections Reported in Texas 4A and 5A UIL Region IV High School According to Athletic Program Sector

N = number of infections

slide17

Range of Skin, Staph, and MRSA Infections Reported in 4A and 5A Texas UIL Region IV High Schools According to Athletic Program Sector

football and wrestling
Football and Wrestling
  • Most Affected Athletic Program Sectors

- Football (more participants)

- Wrestling (higher percentage)

  • Most likely due to:

- Contact sports (person to person transmission)

- Increased risk of lesions as well as turf and mat burns

- Sites of infections go unnoticed

- Sharing of unclean equipment and/or personal items

volleyball and cross country
Volleyball and Cross Country
  • Emerging

-Volleyball high number of reported infections

- Cross country few reported infections

  • Cause of concern

- Volleyball: low contact sports

- Cross country: non-contact sport

- Possibly the first reported cases

adults and non athlete students
Adults and Non-Athlete Students
  • Emerging

-Individuals not directly participating in competition being affected

- Adults are being affected more than some sports sectors

- Non-athlete students seem to be the least affected

  • Most likely due to

- Adults: fix, dress, and wrap athlete wounds

- Non-athletes: clean up equipment and clean up after players

recommendations to prevent mrsa infections
Recommendations to Prevent MRSA Infections
  • For All Adults and Students

- Stress the importance of HAND WASHING and hygiene

- Keep wounds covered and dispose of bandages properly

- Eliminate sharing of equipment and personal items

- Stress clean facilities

summary
Summary

MRSA is prevalent in Texas 4A and 5A UIL Region IV High Schools throughout various athletic programs sectors except for

non-athlete student.

As expected based on previous reports Football and Wrestling are currently the greatest at risk!!!!

a special thanks to
A Special Thanks to…
  • My mentors Marilyn Felkner, DrPH and Jeff Taylor, MPH for all their constant advice and continual support.
  • Hermia Brooks.
  • All the 4A and 5A High School Athletic Trainers who responded to our questionnaire.
  • The Texas Department of State Health Services.
  • The Texas Health Foundation for providing funding.
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