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Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in 4A and 5A High Schools in Texas UIL Region IV Fall 2004. By Carolina Espinoza Public Health Internship - Spring 2005. Objective.

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Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcusaureus in 4A and 5A High Schools in Texas UIL Region IV Fall 2004

By

Carolina Espinoza

Public Health Internship - Spring 2005


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Objective

  • Determine the prevalence of MRSA infections in Texas 4A and 5A UIL Region IV High Schools by surveying Licensed Athletic Trainers through mail and phone questionnaires.

  • Investigate which athletic program sectors are affected.



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Important Facts

  • Staphylococcus aureus (Staph)

    - Common bacteria

    - Acquired mainly through direct contact (individuals and objects)

    - Asymptomatic carriers

    - Found in nose, armpit, groin, and other similar areas

    -Causes soft tissue infections such as boils and impetigo

    - Can cause pneumonia and bloodstream infections

    - Treatable with antibiotics


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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcusaureus (MRSA)

  • MRSA

    - Cannot be treated with common penicillin-like antibiotics

    - In the past confined to hospitals, nursing homes, long-term care facilities

  • CA-MRSA = Community-Associated MRSA

    - Movement into the community

    - Affecting athletes


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History of Staph & MRSA in Athletes

  • 1984 - rugby team in London

  • 1986 - outbreak of boils in football and basketball Kentucky

  • 1993 - 1st case of MRSA in a wrestling team in Vermont

  • 2002 - 03 – MRSA boom!!!

    -Los Angeles county: athletes & county jail

    -Colorado, Indiana, and Pennsylvania – fencers, football, & wrestlers

  • 2004 - 05 – high school, college, professional football and basketball



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Groups in the Study

Athletic Program Sectors

  • Athletes

    Football

    Volleyball

    Wrestling

    Cross Country

  • Non-Athlete Students = student team managers and student athletic trainers

  • Adults = coaches, athletic trainers, and other staff working closely with athletes




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Number of Skin, Staph, and MRSA Infections Reported in Texas 4A and 5A UIL Region IV High School According to Athletic Program Sector

N = number of infections


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Range of Skin, Staph, and MRSA Infections Reported in 4A and 5A Texas UIL Region IV High Schools According to Athletic Program Sector


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Discussion 5A Texas UIL Region IV High Schools According to Athletic Program Sector


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Football and Wrestling 5A Texas UIL Region IV High Schools According to Athletic Program Sector

  • Most Affected Athletic Program Sectors

    - Football (more participants)

    - Wrestling (higher percentage)

  • Most likely due to:

    - Contact sports (person to person transmission)

    - Increased risk of lesions as well as turf and mat burns

    - Sites of infections go unnoticed

    - Sharing of unclean equipment and/or personal items


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Volleyball and Cross Country 5A Texas UIL Region IV High Schools According to Athletic Program Sector

  • Emerging

    -Volleyball high number of reported infections

    - Cross country few reported infections

  • Cause of concern

    - Volleyball: low contact sports

    - Cross country: non-contact sport

    - Possibly the first reported cases


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Adults and Non-Athlete Students 5A Texas UIL Region IV High Schools According to Athletic Program Sector

  • Emerging

    -Individuals not directly participating in competition being affected

    - Adults are being affected more than some sports sectors

    - Non-athlete students seem to be the least affected

  • Most likely due to

    - Adults: fix, dress, and wrap athlete wounds

    - Non-athletes: clean up equipment and clean up after players


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EDUCATION!!! 5A Texas UIL Region IV High Schools According to Athletic Program Sector


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Recommendations to Prevent MRSA Infections 5A Texas UIL Region IV High Schools According to Athletic Program Sector

  • For All Adults and Students

    - Stress the importance of HAND WASHING and hygiene

    - Keep wounds covered and dispose of bandages properly

    - Eliminate sharing of equipment and personal items

    - Stress clean facilities


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Summary 5A Texas UIL Region IV High Schools According to Athletic Program Sector

MRSA is prevalent in Texas 4A and 5A UIL Region IV High Schools throughout various athletic programs sectors except for

non-athlete student.

As expected based on previous reports Football and Wrestling are currently the greatest at risk!!!!


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A Special Thanks to… 5A Texas UIL Region IV High Schools According to Athletic Program Sector

  • My mentors Marilyn Felkner, DrPH and Jeff Taylor, MPH for all their constant advice and continual support.

  • Hermia Brooks.

  • All the 4A and 5A High School Athletic Trainers who responded to our questionnaire.

  • The Texas Department of State Health Services.

  • The Texas Health Foundation for providing funding.


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