Categories Of Behavior. Orienting Responses. TAXES : Movement towards or away from some feature of the environment. - Positive (e.g., Positive geotropism). - Negative (e.g., Negative phototropism).
- Positive (e.g., Positive geotropism).
- Negative (e.g., Negative phototropism).
- Orthokinesis: Rate of movement (in any direction) is a function of environmental conditions.
- Klino-kinesis: Rate of turning (but not velocity) s a function of environmental conditions.
Area Rural Urban Rural
Speed (mph) 40 10 40
Distance (miles) 10 20 30
Time covered by 15’ 60’ 15’
each car (min.)
No. of cars 25 100 25
- Gut is empty at beginning of cycle.
- Flight is guided by kineses (e.g., temperature, light level, time of day, odor of fermenting sugars in plants).
- Taxes guide approach to specific stimuli.
- Blowfly lands on leaf.
- Sugar receptors on hairs of legs are stimulated.
- Proboscis uncoils reflexively.
-Rate of pumping from proboscis to crop is a function of sweetness and adaptation level of sugar receptors. Sweetness steadily decreases. -Sweetness eventually falls below some critical value; pumping resumes. -Intake is not a simple cyclic function of adaptation of sugar sensors. -The digestive tract regulates the value of threshold for sweetness. -Crop stores food and then transfers it to main gut and to bloodstream.
Foraging Cycle of Blowfly, cont’d
makes probable (e.g., empty crop).
-If they hear(but not see)a normal adult male, they will get it right during the second spring.
- If, however, the chaffinchsings the wrong song during the second spring (by virtue of socializing with a different kind of finch) it will never get it right.
White crown sparrow’s song:10-50 days
Gosling’s following behavior:4-17 days
Imprinting sweetness and adaptation level of sugar receptors. Sweetness steadily decreases.
Test: Will gosling
follow duck that
Test: Will gosling
to follow duck?