Categories Of Behavior. Orienting Responses. TAXES : Movement towards or away from some feature of the environment. -Positive (e.g., Positive geotropism). -Negative (e.g., Negative phototropism).
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-Positive (e.g., Positive geotropism).
-Negative (e.g., Negative phototropism).
-Orthokinesis: Rate of movement (in any direction) is a function of environmental conditions.
-Klino-kinesis: Rate of turning (but not velocity) s a function of environmental conditions.
Time covered by15’60’15’
each car (min.)
No. of cars2510025
-Gut is empty at beginning of cycle.
-Flight is guided by kineses (e.g., temperature, light level, time of day, odor of fermenting sugars in plants).
-Taxes guide approach to specific stimuli.
-Blowfly lands on leaf.
-Sugar receptors on hairs of legs are stimulated.
-Proboscis uncoils reflexively.
-Rate of pumping from proboscis to crop is a function of sweetness and adaptation level of sugar receptors. Sweetness steadily decreases.-Sweetness eventually falls below some critical value; pumping resumes.-Intake is not a simple cyclic function of adaptation of sugar sensors.-The digestive tract regulates the value of threshold for sweetness.-Crop stores food and then transfers it to main gut and to bloodstream.
Foraging Cycle of Blowfly, cont’d
makes probable (e.g., empty crop).
-If they hear(but not see)a normal adult male, they will get it right during the second spring.
-If, however, the chaffinchsings the wrong song during the second spring (by virtue of socializing with a different kind of finch) it will never get it right.
Critical Periodsfor Development of Behavior
White crown sparrow’s song:10-50 days
Gosling’s following behavior:4-17 days
Test: Will gosling
follow duck that
Test: Will gosling
to follow duck?