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Categories Of Behavior. Orienting Responses. TAXES : Movement towards or away from some feature of the environment. - Positive (e.g., Positive geotropism). - Negative (e.g., Negative phototropism).

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Orienting Responses

  • TAXES: Movement towards or away from some feature of the environment.

    - Positive (e.g., Positive geotropism).

    - Negative (e.g., Negative phototropism).

  • KINESES: Rate of movement (but not direction) is determined by some feature of the environment.

    - Orthokinesis: Rate of movement (in any direction) is a function of environmental conditions.

    - Klino-kinesis: Rate of turning (but not velocity) s a function of environmental conditions.



Do drivers like traffic jams l.jpg
Do Drivers Like Traffic Jams? Of Humidity

Area Rural Urban Rural

Speed (mph) 40 10 40

Distance (miles) 10 20 30

Time covered by 15’ 60’ 15’

each car (min.)

No. of cars 25 100 25


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Round Dance Of Humidity



Key phases of blowfly eating cycle l.jpg
Key Phases Of Blowfly Eating Cycle: Of Humidity

  • pumping reflex of proboscis

  • sensory adaptation of sugar receptors

  • sugar concentration of food

  • state of crop

  • state of gut (blood sugar level)


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Foraging Cycle Of Blowfly Of Humidity

- Gut is empty at beginning of cycle.

- Flight is guided by kineses (e.g., temperature, light level, time of day, odor of fermenting sugars in plants).

- Taxes guide approach to specific stimuli.

- Blowfly lands on leaf.

- Sugar receptors on hairs of legs are stimulated.

- Proboscis uncoils reflexively.


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-Rate of pumping from proboscis to crop is a function of sweetness and adaptation level of sugar receptors. Sweetness steadily decreases. -Sweetness eventually falls below some critical value; pumping resumes. -Intake is not a simple cyclic function of adaptation of sugar sensors. -The digestive tract regulates the value of threshold for sweetness. -Crop stores food and then transfers it to main gut and to bloodstream.

Foraging Cycle of Blowfly, cont’d


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THREE PHASES OF MOTIVATED ACTIVITY sweetness and adaptation level of sugar receptors. Sweetness steadily decreases.(as illustrated by feeding cycle of blowfly)

  • DRIVE: Some state of a regulator produces or

    makes probable (e.g., empty crop).

  • APPETITIVE BEHAVIOR: responses to stimuli, which contribute to a consummatory event, (e.g., ingesting sugar).

  • CONSUMMATORY EVENT: a shift in the regulator away from its initial drive state (e.g., transferring food from crop to gut).


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Sparrow Songs sweetness and adaptation level of sugar receptors. Sweetness steadily decreases.


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Chaffinch Songs sweetness and adaptation level of sugar receptors. Sweetness steadily decreases.


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Development Of Chaffinch Song sweetness and adaptation level of sugar receptors. Sweetness steadily decreases.

  • Chaffinch isborn in the spring.

  • Itsings its mature song 1 year later(at which time it also nests for the first time).

  • During the first few weeks after hatching, it only emits food begging calls.

  • During the summer and fall it produces asubsong, bits of the full song that are not integrated into correct sequence and that are not sung as loudly as full song.

  • There isvery little singingof any kindduring the winter.

  • During the following spring it resumes singing thesubsongwhich, over a period of a few weeks, blends smoothly into full song.

  • Thetransitional songis calledplastic song(because it is more variable than full song).

  • A permanentcrystallized songfinallyappears about second month of the second spring. The crystallized song is sung every spring for the rest of the chaffinch’s life- approximately five years.


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What A Chaffinch Sings sweetness and adaptation level of sugar receptors. Sweetness steadily decreases.

  • First-yearchaffinches, raised by themselves, or deafened, they will sing abnormal songsduring the following spring.

    -If they hear(but not see)a normal adult male, they will get it right during the second spring.

    - If, however, the chaffinchsings the wrong song during the second spring (by virtue of socializing with a different kind of finch) it will never get it right.

  • Depending upon how much of the adult song the young chaffinch hears (and the quality of that song) itpicks the best components to copy.

  • Ifdeafening occurs after the second spring, normal songis still produced.


Key phases of blowfly eating cycle17 l.jpg
Key Phases Of Blowfly Eating Cycle: sweetness and adaptation level of sugar receptors. Sweetness steadily decreases.

  • pumping reflex of proboscis

  • sensory adaptation of sugar receptors

  • sugar concentration of food

  • state of crop

  • state of gut (blood sugar level)


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Critical Periods sweetness and adaptation level of sugar receptors. Sweetness steadily decreases.for Development of Behavior

White crown sparrow’s song:10-50 days

Gosling’s following behavior:4-17 days


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Imprinting sweetness and adaptation level of sugar receptors. Sweetness steadily decreases.

Apparatus

Test: Will gosling

follow duck that

moved during

training?

Test: Will gosling

overcome obstacles

to follow duck?


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Critical Period For Imprinting sweetness and adaptation level of sugar receptors. Sweetness steadily decreases.