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ROAD ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS: A New Approach to Highway Safety Management and Communications. Funded through the generosity of and its members. Problems. Unacceptably high socio-economic toll from traffic crashes Culture of complacency Under investment in safety

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slide2

Funded through the

generosity of

and its members

problems
Problems
  • Unacceptably high socio-economic toll from traffic crashes
  • Culture of complacency
  • Under investment in safety
  • Politics vs. evidence-based decisions
slide5

Global Safety ComparisonsFatality Rate (2002 Data) – Deaths/1B kmVT

  • United Kingdom 7.6
  • Sweden 8.3
  • Norway 8.3
  • Switzerland 8.4
  • Finland 8.5
  • Australia 9.0
  • Denmark 9.2
  • Canada 9.3
  • USA 9.4
  • Germany 11.1

10th

(Source: IRTAD 2004)

slide6

Why Success in Other Industrialized Nations ?

“Safety Culture”

  • United Kingdom
      • Typical speeding, safety belt or cell phone traffic violation fine £ 1,000 = $1,893.00
      • Automated speed enforcement is commonly employed
    • Sweden
      • “Vision Zero” National Goal is NO highway deaths
      • The lowest legal BAC level is (.02)
slide7
Traffic fines generally are based on two factors:

the severity of the offense

the driver\'s income.

“Jaako Rytsola, a 27-year-old Finnish Internet entrepreneur and newspaper columnist, was cruising in his BMW one recent evening. The officer pulled over Mr. Rytsola\'s car and issued him a speeding ticket for driving 43 miles an hour in a 25-mile-an-hour zone. The fine: $71,400.”

Finland“When it comes to crime, the wealthy should suffer as much as the poor.”

slide8

Change the Safety Culture

“I would conclude that one of the failures in the United States is to get highway safety as a high priority for key decision makers.”

-Brian O’Neill , President and CEO

Insurance Institute for Highway Safety

more problems
More Problems
  • Data limitations in many agencies
  • Wide variation in analysis and evaluation tools
  • No single, agreed upon, systematic tool to assess road safety risks
  • Little transparency in most procedures
what should be done
What should be done?

“The media, private interest groups, and insurance companies should work together to enhance public awareness of highway safety.”

- S A M U E L C . T I G N O R, Eliminating the Annual Highway Safety Tragedy, TR NEWS 245 JULY–AUGUST 2006

“I would conclude that one of the failures in the United States is to get highway safety as a high priority for key decision makers.”

-Brian O’Neill , President and CEO, Insurance Institute for Highway Safety

Change the Safety Culture!

rap road assessment programs
RAP – Road Assessment Programs
  • Started in Europe in 2001
    • Inspired by EuroNCAP
    • almost 20 countries
  • AusRAP
  • RAP Objectives
  • Help cut death and serious injury rates through systematic risk assessment which identify major safety shortcomings amenable to practical remedy
  • Ensure that strategic decisions are linked to risk assessment
  • Forge partnerships among those responsible for a safe road system
slide12
Initiated in 2004
  • Pilot studies in Iowa & Michigan
  • First public release of findings in Spring 2006
  • Expanded pilot studies about to begin
  • Research Team:
    • Midwest Research Institute
    • Iowa State University
the three rap protocols
The Three RAP Protocols
  • Risk Mapping
    • maps of death and serious injury risk for road users
  • Road Protection Score
    • star rating based on inspecting road features that protect users from serious injury or death
  • Performance Tracking
    • comparisons of safety performance for roadway sections over time
risk maps
Risk Maps
  • Focus on rural road system
    • State primary routes
    • County primary roads
  • Homogeneous road segments
  • Segment length sufficient to provide meaningful results
8 types of risk maps
8 Types of Risk Maps
  • Four from EuroRAP
  • Four new ones being evaluated
slide20

Map 5: Loss Density– Preliminary USRAP/Iowa Categories

5 year Annualized Total Crash Loss per Mile (Iowa DOT values)

5 yrs

of data

Mason

City

Spencer

Fort

Dodge

Sioux

City

Dubuque

Waterloo

Ames

Marshalltown

Cedar Rapids

Clinton

Iowa

City

Des Moines

Quad Cities

Council Bluffs

Ottumwa

slide21

Map 6: Loss Rate– Preliminary USRAP/Iowa Categories

5 year Annualized Total Crash Loss per Vehicle Mile (Iowa DOT values)

5 yrs

of data

Mason

City

Spencer

Fort

Dodge

Sioux

City

Dubuque

Waterloo

Ames

Marshalltown

Cedar Rapids

Clinton

Iowa

City

Des Moines

Quad Cities

Council Bluffs

Ottumwa

slide22

Map 7: Intersection Rate – Preliminary USRAP/Iowa Categories

3 Year Average Crash Rate per 100MEV

3 yrs

of data

Note: does not include zero crash intersections

slide23

Map 8: Intersection Frequency – v.2 Preliminary USRAP/Iowa Categories

3 Year Annualized Crashes

3 yrs

of data

duration of study period

3 yrs

of data

1 yr

of data

10 yrs

of data

5 yrs

of data

Duration of Study Period
  • 1-year too short
  • 10-year maps pose problems due to highway system changes
  • Both 3- and 5-year maps have been developed
applications for risk maps
Applications for Risk Maps
  • Better public understanding of highway safety needs
  • Influence motorist route choice
  • Influence motorist behavior on higher risk routes
applications for risk maps28
Applications for Risk Maps
  • Assist highway agencies in implementing new SAFETEA-LU programs:
    • 5% criterion
    • high-risk rural roads program
    • statewide safety planning
star ratings based on road protection score
Star Ratings based on Road Protection Score
  • Identify differences in road design features related to crash protection features of the roadway
  • Provide star ratings based on inventories
  • More research needed to adapt EuroRAP tools to U.S. conditions
star rating maps iowa
Star Rating Maps -- Iowa

RPS data collection:

  • Obtained as much data as possible from existing highway agency files
  • Obtained remaining data from videlog review
data collection issues
Data Collection Issues
  • Cost of field data vs. video
  • Automated video data reduction (as in AusRAP)
  • Accuracy of roadside slope estimates
usrap plans
usRAP Plans
  • Release pilot study results
  • Expand pilot studies into other states – Florida, New Jersey, Illinois
  • Additional work in MI & IA
  • Coordinate with international efforts – Costa Rica and Chile
  • Seek collaborators
  • Explore most appropriate communication strategies
for more information

Questions?

For more information …

www.aaafoundation.org

or

Reg Souleyrette

Iowa State University

515-294-5453

[email protected]

gis challenges
GIS Challenges
  • Integrating disparate data sets
  • Defining “common” road types
  • Aggregating roadway sections
  • Identifying road location: urban v. rural
  • Crash assignment & changing cartography
  • Road protection scoring
integrating disparate data sets
Integrating Disparate Data Sets
  • Iowa DOT GIMS roadway database
    • Linear
    • Annual spatial and attribute changes
  • Iowa DOT crash database
    • Point
    • Geocoded against GIMS “snapshot”
  • Iowa DNR corporate limits
    • Polygon
  • FHWA urban areas
    • Polygon

Similar data also present

in GIMS

defining common road types
Access control

No Access Control (not presently used)

Interstate and Freeway

Expressway

Planned Access with through traffic given primary consideration

Planned Access with through traffic and land services traffic given equal consideration

City

Corporate boundary

Median type

No barrier (< .152 meter curb)

Hard surface without barrier (Raised Median) Grass surface without barrier Hard surface with barrier Grass surface with barrier

Barrier (> .152 meters)

Urban area

Number of lanes

Type of lanes (through, turning, etc.)

Speed limit

Defining Common Road Types

Multilane

Divided

Multilane

Undivided

Freeway

Two-lane

defining common road types40
Defining Common Road Types

Do not fit a “common” road type

aggregating sections
Aggregating Sections
  • 27,900  3,100
    • Homogeneous among several attributes, e.g. # lanes, shoulder type, traffic volumes, speed, etc.
  • 3,100  1,600

Part 1

    • Same county, route number, road type
    • Equal speed limits or within 5 mph
    • Traffic volumes w/in 20% or 2,000 vpd

Part 2

    • Short sections w/in towns under 2,000 population…
    • Short sections outside of towns with speed limits…
    • Very short sections of different road types…
    • Very short rural sections with urban sections on both sides…
aggregating sections42
Aggregating Sections
  • As a starting point, may require overlaying multiple event themes to generate “homogeneous” sections.

Road Type

Multilane Undivided

Two-lane

ADT

6,000

7,500

3,500

Speed Limit

45 mph

35 mph

Event Overlay

Two-lane

6,000 vpd

45 mph

Two-lane

3,500 vpd

45 mph

MLUD

6,000 vpd

45 mph

MLUD

6,000 vpd

35 mph

Multilane Undivided

7,500 vpd

35 mph

identifying road location
Identifying Road Location

Urban v. Rural

Pop ~ 6,000

Pop ~ 8,000

Not defined as “urban area” but…

completely within corporate limits

Not defined as “urban area”

crash assignment changing cartography
Crash Assignment & Changing Cartography

Crashes not within spatial tolerance

(must combine tolerance and proximity)

Crashes within spatial tolerance but…

potentially inaccurately assigned

crash assignment changing cartography45
Crash Assignment & Changing Cartography

too many

road segments

identified

Determination of entering traffic volumes

(spatial tolerance required?)

Potential inaccurate crash assignment and…

how to distribute crashes among intersection legs?

slide46

Crash Assignment

50m?

Within Distance

slide47

Crash Assignment

Closest Proximity

slide48

Crash Assignment

  • Section 1?
  • Section 2?
  • Section 3?
  • Sections 1 & 2?
  • Sections 1 & 3?
  • Distribute among all?
  • Higher functional class?

Section 4

2000 ADT

20 Crashes

Section 2

3500 ADT

Section 1

2500 ADT

Section 3

2000 ADT

Example alternative

Intersection Crash Assignment

slide49

Road Protection Scoring

Must track & record road protection

elements for appropriate roadway

segmentation, utilizing videolog &

GIS-based mileage.

usrap florida

usRAP Florida

Risk Maps

scope
Scope
  • Rural state highway system
  • No ramps, frontage roads
data for risk mapping
Data for Risk Mapping
  • Access to data provided by FDOT
    • FDOT website GIS
    • FDOT Transportation Statistics Office, GIS Support Section: segment characteristics
    • CAR system – mainframe crash data and videolog
rci to usrap segmentation
RCI to usRAP Segmentation
  • Used
    • County
    • Posted US or State Road Number
    • Type of Road
    • Toll Road
    • Urban Area Code
    • Number of Through Roadway Lanes
    • AADT
    • Access Control Type
    • Speed Zone
segmentation cont
Segmentation, cont.
  • Group segments into four road types (not always straightforward)
    • Freeway
    • Multilane divided
    • Multilane undivided
    • Two-lane
  • Objective: homogeneous segments for analysis
  • Before aggregation
    • 62,438 records (RCI)
  • After preliminary aggregation
    • 7838 segments after

prelim. aggregation

      • Average length 0.77 mi.
  • After final aggregation
    • 1584 segments
      • Average length 3.8 mi.

Process for QC and data prep

crash data
Crash Data
  • Used fatal and major-injury crashes only
  • Geolocated all crashes using dynamic segmentation
    • .53% unmapped
  • Identify crashes on usRAP segments
slide56
Preliminary section aggregation:

± road type, route, county or toll

AADT ± 2000 or 20%

Speed ± 5mph

Too many sections, far too short

Relaxed some constraints:

Urban (Speed <=50mph)

AADT ± 4,000 or 40%

Rural (Speed > 50mph

AADT ± 4,000 or 40%

speed ± 10mph

Section length < 1 Mile

slide57

Manual adjustment based on county breaks for short distances or similar short segments caused by city limits

the world road safety problem
The world road safety problem
  • 1.2 million killed every year
irap background
iRAP - Background
  • Every year worldwide
    • 1.2 million road deaths
    • 50 million are injured or permanently disabled
    • 85-90% of road deaths are in low and middle income countries
  • Cost is 1-3% of global GDP
  • Road deaths set to overtake AIDS as the leading cause of unnatural death by 2020
irap project aims
iRAP Project Aims
  • Drive safety upgrading where large numbers are killed and seriously injured
  • Global methodology to generate effective and economic countermeasure programmes
  • Implement performance tracking methodologies for funding bodies to assess outcomes
  • Provide the training, manuals and web tools to build and sustain national capability
3 continent road inspections
3 Continent Road Inspections
  • Pilot countries:
    • Typical country of the region with a strong commitment to road safety
    • Casualty data available for calibration and validation
    • GPS data can be acquired without unusual difficulty
    • Club strong with good relationships (police, local and national authorities etc)
irap pilot
iRAP Pilot

EuroRAP

usRAP

Costa

Rica

Malaysia

South Africa

AusRAP

Chile

AusRAP – Malaysia – AAM, ARRB & AAA

EuroRAP – South Africa – TRL

usRAP – Costa Rica and Chile – MRI plus RACC help

irap longer term
iRAP – longer term

If the pilot study is successful…..

  • Link to the World Bank and secure greater funding for international road safety
  • Wider implementation of iRAP across the world
  • Safer roads &
  • Lives saved
slide77

Is it a plane, a train, a speeding bullet?...

An actual bird’s eye?? - Surely not

An early warning plane??

A TV Character??

A comic book hero??

No… it’s a road surveying vehicle system!!!

A Slide guitarist – Hawkeye Herman

a network survey vehicle
A Network Survey Vehicle

www.arrb.com.au Advancing safety and efficiency in transport through knowledge

hawkeye acquire software
Hawkeye Acquire Software

www.arrb.com.au Advancing safety and efficiency in transport through knowledge

slide80

Click here for Sample Costa Rica Video Log

www.arrb.com.au Advancing safety and efficiency in transport through knowledge

hawkeye survey viewer
Hawkeye Survey Viewer

a.k.a : Hawkeye Processing Toolkit

www.arrb.com.au Advancing safety and efficiency in transport through knowledge

hmmm so how does it work
Hmmm… So how does it work?
  • Hawkeye has 3 parts
    • Hardware (Lasers, Cameras, GIPSI, Computers, Heartbeat)
    • Acquire Software (in NSV)
    • Processing Toolkit/Data Viewer Software (in office)

ODO

Hawkeye

Processing Toolkit

Hawkeye

Acquire

Video

Road Information

Risk Calculation Engines

USEFUL INFORMATION

GPS

Lasers

GIPSI

Utility Scale

All knowing Deities Road Uber-Dorks ARRB Employee’s Roads Engineers Planners/Economists Politicians/Laymen

www.arrb.com.au Advancing safety and efficiency in transport through knowledge

slide83

iRAP List of Attributes for Hawkeye.xls

iRAP Test Output Columnar.xls

raters

Raters

Raters are humans too

Session 4 : Tuesday 27th March 2007

www.arrb.com.au Advancing safety and efficiency in transport through knowledge

slide85
As you will find out over the next couple of days:

Rating is not the most exciting job.

…But someone has to do it

How can we make it easier?

www.arrb.com.au Advancing safety and efficiency in transport through knowledge

area of interest
Area of Interest
  • We want to rate only the 50m in front of the car
      • So we don’t double up on the rating

www.arrb.com.au Advancing safety and efficiency in transport through knowledge

ratings definition
Ratings Definition
  • Lets have a look at the inspection manual
    • Malaysia (video)
    • South Africa (tablet).

www.arrb.com.au Advancing safety and efficiency in transport through knowledge

all the pretty lights
All the pretty lights…

…and cables and cameras

High Definition Digital Cameras

Accelerometer/

Odometer

GPS Unit

www.arrb.com.au Advancing safety and efficiency in transport through knowledge

what does hawkeye acquire acquire
What does Hawkeye Acquire acquire?

What can we do with it?

  • Odometer Info (Distance, Time)
  • GPS (Lat, Long)
  • Video (Hi-def Video)
  • Digital Profile
  • Geometry (Gyro1, Gyro2)

Speed

GPS, DGPS, WGS84

Video rating

Roughness, Rutting, Texture

Horizontal Curvature,

Vertical Curvature,

Cross fall,

Super Elevation

Altitude

www.arrb.com.au Advancing safety and efficiency in transport through knowledge

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