Road assessment programs a new approach to highway safety management and communications
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ROAD ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS: A New Approach to Highway Safety Management and Communications. Funded through the generosity of and its members. Problems. Unacceptably high socio-economic toll from traffic crashes Culture of complacency Under investment in safety

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Funded through the Management and Communications

generosity of

and its members


Problems l.jpg
Problems Management and Communications

  • Unacceptably high socio-economic toll from traffic crashes

  • Culture of complacency

  • Under investment in safety

  • Politics vs. evidence-based decisions


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Global Safety Comparisons Management and CommunicationsFatality Rate (2002 Data) – Deaths/1B kmVT

  • United Kingdom 7.6

  • Sweden 8.3

  • Norway 8.3

  • Switzerland 8.4

  • Finland 8.5

  • Australia 9.0

  • Denmark 9.2

  • Canada 9.3

  • USA 9.4

  • Germany 11.1

10th

(Source: IRTAD 2004)


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Why Success in Management and CommunicationsOther Industrialized Nations ?

“Safety Culture”

  • United Kingdom

    • Typical speeding, safety belt or cell phone traffic violation fine £ 1,000 = $1,893.00

    • Automated speed enforcement is commonly employed

  • Sweden

    • “Vision Zero” National Goal is NO highway deaths

    • The lowest legal BAC level is (.02)


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Traffic fines generally are based on Management and Communicationstwo factors:

the severity of the offense

the driver's income.

“Jaako Rytsola, a 27-year-old Finnish Internet entrepreneur and newspaper columnist, was cruising in his BMW one recent evening. The officer pulled over Mr. Rytsola's car and issued him a speeding ticket for driving 43 miles an hour in a 25-mile-an-hour zone. The fine: $71,400.”

Finland“When it comes to crime, the wealthy should suffer as much as the poor.”


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Change the Safety Culture Management and Communications

“I would conclude that one of the failures in the United States is to get highway safety as a high priority for key decision makers.”

-Brian O’Neill , President and CEO

Insurance Institute for Highway Safety


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More Problems Management and Communications

  • Data limitations in many agencies

  • Wide variation in analysis and evaluation tools

  • No single, agreed upon, systematic tool to assess road safety risks

  • Little transparency in most procedures


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What should be done? Management and Communications

“The media, private interest groups, and insurance companies should work together to enhance public awareness of highway safety.”

- S A M U E L C . T I G N O R, Eliminating the Annual Highway Safety Tragedy, TR NEWS 245 JULY–AUGUST 2006

“I would conclude that one of the failures in the United States is to get highway safety as a high priority for key decision makers.”

-Brian O’Neill , President and CEO, Insurance Institute for Highway Safety

Change the Safety Culture!


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RAP – Road Assessment Programs Management and Communications

  • Started in Europe in 2001

    • Inspired by EuroNCAP

    • almost 20 countries

  • AusRAP

  • RAP Objectives

  • Help cut death and serious injury rates through systematic risk assessment which identify major safety shortcomings amenable to practical remedy

  • Ensure that strategic decisions are linked to risk assessment

  • Forge partnerships among those responsible for a safe road system


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  • Initiated in 2004 Management and Communications

  • Pilot studies in Iowa & Michigan

  • First public release of findings in Spring 2006

  • Expanded pilot studies about to begin

  • Research Team:

    • Midwest Research Institute

    • Iowa State University


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The Three RAP Protocols Management and Communications

  • Risk Mapping

    • maps of death and serious injury risk for road users

  • Road Protection Score

    • star rating based on inspecting road features that protect users from serious injury or death

  • Performance Tracking

    • comparisons of safety performance for roadway sections over time


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Risk Maps Management and Communications

  • Focus on rural road system

    • State primary routes

    • County primary roads

  • Homogeneous road segments

  • Segment length sufficient to provide meaningful results


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8 Types of Risk Maps Management and Communications

  • Four from EuroRAP

  • Four new ones being evaluated


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Map 5: Loss Density– Preliminary USRAP/Iowa Categories Management and Communications

5 year Annualized Total Crash Loss per Mile (Iowa DOT values)

5 yrs

of data

Mason

City

Spencer

Fort

Dodge

Sioux

City

Dubuque

Waterloo

Ames

Marshalltown

Cedar Rapids

Clinton

Iowa

City

Des Moines

Quad Cities

Council Bluffs

Ottumwa


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Map 6: Loss Rate– Preliminary USRAP/Iowa Categories Management and Communications

5 year Annualized Total Crash Loss per Vehicle Mile (Iowa DOT values)

5 yrs

of data

Mason

City

Spencer

Fort

Dodge

Sioux

City

Dubuque

Waterloo

Ames

Marshalltown

Cedar Rapids

Clinton

Iowa

City

Des Moines

Quad Cities

Council Bluffs

Ottumwa


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Map 7: Intersection Rate – Preliminary USRAP/Iowa Categories

3 Year Average Crash Rate per 100MEV

3 yrs

of data

Note: does not include zero crash intersections


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Map 8: Intersection Frequency – v.2 Preliminary USRAP/Iowa Categories

3 Year Annualized Crashes

3 yrs

of data


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3 yrs USRAP/Iowa Categories

of data

1 yr

of data

10 yrs

of data

5 yrs

of data

Duration of Study Period

  • 1-year too short

  • 10-year maps pose problems due to highway system changes

  • Both 3- and 5-year maps have been developed


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How to set the risk ranges? USRAP/Iowa Categories


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Applications for Risk Maps USRAP/Iowa Categories

  • Better public understanding of highway safety needs

  • Influence motorist route choice

  • Influence motorist behavior on higher risk routes


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Applications for Risk Maps USRAP/Iowa Categories

  • Assist highway agencies in implementing new SAFETEA-LU programs:

    • 5% criterion

    • high-risk rural roads program

    • statewide safety planning


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Star Ratings based on USRAP/Iowa CategoriesRoad Protection Score

  • Identify differences in road design features related to crash protection features of the roadway

  • Provide star ratings based on inventories

  • More research needed to adapt EuroRAP tools to U.S. conditions


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Star Rating Maps -- Iowa USRAP/Iowa Categories

RPS data collection:

  • Obtained as much data as possible from existing highway agency files

  • Obtained remaining data from videlog review


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RPS data collection USRAP/Iowa Categories


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Data Collection Issues USRAP/Iowa Categories

  • Cost of field data vs. video

  • Automated video data reduction (as in AusRAP)

  • Accuracy of roadside slope estimates


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usRAP Plans USRAP/Iowa Categories

  • Release pilot study results

  • Expand pilot studies into other states – Florida, New Jersey, Illinois

  • Additional work in MI & IA

  • Coordinate with international efforts – Costa Rica and Chile

  • Seek collaborators

  • Explore most appropriate communication strategies


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Questions? USRAP/Iowa Categories

For more information …

www.aaafoundation.org

or

Reg Souleyrette

Iowa State University

515-294-5453

[email protected]


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GIS Challenges USRAP/Iowa Categories

  • Integrating disparate data sets

  • Defining “common” road types

  • Aggregating roadway sections

  • Identifying road location: urban v. rural

  • Crash assignment & changing cartography

  • Road protection scoring


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Integrating Disparate Data Sets USRAP/Iowa Categories

  • Iowa DOT GIMS roadway database

    • Linear

    • Annual spatial and attribute changes

  • Iowa DOT crash database

    • Point

    • Geocoded against GIMS “snapshot”

  • Iowa DNR corporate limits

    • Polygon

  • FHWA urban areas

    • Polygon

Similar data also present

in GIMS


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Access control USRAP/Iowa Categories

No Access Control (not presently used)

Interstate and Freeway

Expressway

Planned Access with through traffic given primary consideration

Planned Access with through traffic and land services traffic given equal consideration

City

Corporate boundary

Median type

No barrier (< .152 meter curb)

Hard surface without barrier (Raised Median) Grass surface without barrier Hard surface with barrier Grass surface with barrier

Barrier (> .152 meters)

Urban area

Number of lanes

Type of lanes (through, turning, etc.)

Speed limit

Defining Common Road Types

Multilane

Divided

Multilane

Undivided

Freeway

Two-lane


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Defining Common Road Types USRAP/Iowa Categories

Do not fit a “common” road type


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Aggregating Sections USRAP/Iowa Categories

  • 27,900  3,100

    • Homogeneous among several attributes, e.g. # lanes, shoulder type, traffic volumes, speed, etc.

  • 3,100  1,600

    Part 1

    • Same county, route number, road type

    • Equal speed limits or within 5 mph

    • Traffic volumes w/in 20% or 2,000 vpd

      Part 2

    • Short sections w/in towns under 2,000 population…

    • Short sections outside of towns with speed limits…

    • Very short sections of different road types…

    • Very short rural sections with urban sections on both sides…


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Aggregating Sections USRAP/Iowa Categories

  • As a starting point, may require overlaying multiple event themes to generate “homogeneous” sections.

Road Type

Multilane Undivided

Two-lane

ADT

6,000

7,500

3,500

Speed Limit

45 mph

35 mph

Event Overlay

Two-lane

6,000 vpd

45 mph

Two-lane

3,500 vpd

45 mph

MLUD

6,000 vpd

45 mph

MLUD

6,000 vpd

35 mph

Multilane Undivided

7,500 vpd

35 mph


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Identifying Road Location USRAP/Iowa Categories

Urban v. Rural

Pop ~ 6,000

Pop ~ 8,000

Not defined as “urban area” but…

completely within corporate limits

Not defined as “urban area”


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Crash Assignment & Changing Cartography USRAP/Iowa Categories

Crashes not within spatial tolerance

(must combine tolerance and proximity)

Crashes within spatial tolerance but…

potentially inaccurately assigned


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Crash Assignment & Changing Cartography USRAP/Iowa Categories

too many

road segments

identified

Determination of entering traffic volumes

(spatial tolerance required?)

Potential inaccurate crash assignment and…

how to distribute crashes among intersection legs?


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Crash Assignment USRAP/Iowa Categories

50m?

Within Distance


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Crash Assignment USRAP/Iowa Categories

Closest Proximity


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Crash Assignment USRAP/Iowa Categories

  • Section 1?

  • Section 2?

  • Section 3?

  • Sections 1 & 2?

  • Sections 1 & 3?

  • Distribute among all?

  • Higher functional class?

Section 4

2000 ADT

20 Crashes

Section 2

3500 ADT

Section 1

2500 ADT

Section 3

2000 ADT

Example alternative

Intersection Crash Assignment


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Road Protection Scoring USRAP/Iowa Categories

Must track & record road protection

elements for appropriate roadway

segmentation, utilizing videolog &

GIS-based mileage.


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usRAP Florida USRAP/Iowa Categories

Risk Maps


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Scope USRAP/Iowa Categories

  • Rural state highway system

  • No ramps, frontage roads


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Data for Risk Mapping USRAP/Iowa Categories

  • Access to data provided by FDOT

    • FDOT website GIS

    • FDOT Transportation Statistics Office, GIS Support Section: segment characteristics

    • CAR system – mainframe crash data and videolog


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RCI to usRAP Segmentation USRAP/Iowa Categories

  • Used

    • County

    • Posted US or State Road Number

    • Type of Road

    • Toll Road

    • Urban Area Code

    • Number of Through Roadway Lanes

    • AADT

    • Access Control Type

    • Speed Zone


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Segmentation, cont. USRAP/Iowa Categories

  • Group segments into four road types (not always straightforward)

    • Freeway

    • Multilane divided

    • Multilane undivided

    • Two-lane

  • Objective: homogeneous segments for analysis

  • Before aggregation

    • 62,438 records (RCI)

  • After preliminary aggregation

    • 7838 segments after

      prelim. aggregation

      • Average length 0.77 mi.

  • After final aggregation

    • 1584 segments

      • Average length 3.8 mi.

Process for QC and data prep


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Crash Data USRAP/Iowa Categories

  • Used fatal and major-injury crashes only

  • Geolocated all crashes using dynamic segmentation

    • .53% unmapped

  • Identify crashes on usRAP segments


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Preliminary section aggregation: USRAP/Iowa Categories

± road type, route, county or toll

AADT ± 2000 or 20%

Speed ± 5mph

Too many sections, far too short

Relaxed some constraints:

Urban (Speed <=50mph)

AADT ± 4,000 or 40%

Rural (Speed > 50mph

AADT ± 4,000 or 40%

speed ± 10mph

Section length < 1 Mile


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Manual adjustment based on county breaks for short distances or similar short segments caused by city limits


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Safety Performance of or similar short segments caused by city limitsRoadway Types


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Map 1 or similar short segments caused by city limits


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Map 2 or similar short segments caused by city limits


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Map 3 or similar short segments caused by city limits


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Map 4 or similar short segments caused by city limits


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The world road safety problem or similar short segments caused by city limits

  • 1.2 million killed every year


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iRAP - Background or similar short segments caused by city limits

  • Every year worldwide

    • 1.2 million road deaths

    • 50 million are injured or permanently disabled

    • 85-90% of road deaths are in low and middle income countries

  • Cost is 1-3% of global GDP

  • Road deaths set to overtake AIDS as the leading cause of unnatural death by 2020


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iRAP Project Aims or similar short segments caused by city limits

  • Drive safety upgrading where large numbers are killed and seriously injured

  • Global methodology to generate effective and economic countermeasure programmes

  • Implement performance tracking methodologies for funding bodies to assess outcomes

  • Provide the training, manuals and web tools to build and sustain national capability


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iRAP (international Road Assessment Programme) or similar short segments caused by city limits

  • Intro Video


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3 Continent Road Inspections or similar short segments caused by city limits

  • Pilot countries:

    • Typical country of the region with a strong commitment to road safety

    • Casualty data available for calibration and validation

    • GPS data can be acquired without unusual difficulty

    • Club strong with good relationships (police, local and national authorities etc)


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iRAP Pilot or similar short segments caused by city limits

EuroRAP

usRAP

Costa

Rica

Malaysia

South Africa

AusRAP

Chile

AusRAP – Malaysia – AAM, ARRB & AAA

EuroRAP – South Africa – TRL

usRAP – Costa Rica and Chile – MRI plus RACC help


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iRAP – longer term or similar short segments caused by city limits

If the pilot study is successful…..

  • Link to the World Bank and secure greater funding for international road safety

  • Wider implementation of iRAP across the world

  • Safer roads &

  • Lives saved


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Costa Rica Pilot or similar short segments caused by city limits


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Ciclovía: Sección 1 or similar short segments caused by city limits


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Ciclovía: Sección 2 or similar short segments caused by city limits


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Ciclovía: Sección 3 or similar short segments caused by city limits


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Acera en Puentes or similar short segments caused by city limits


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What is Hawkeye? or similar short segments caused by city limits


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Is it a plane, a train, a speeding bullet?... or similar short segments caused by city limits

An actual bird’s eye?? - Surely not

An early warning plane??

A TV Character??

A comic book hero??

No… it’s a road surveying vehicle system!!!

A Slide guitarist – Hawkeye Herman


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A Network Survey Vehicle or similar short segments caused by city limits

www.arrb.com.au Advancing safety and efficiency in transport through knowledge


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Hawkeye Acquire Software or similar short segments caused by city limits

www.arrb.com.au Advancing safety and efficiency in transport through knowledge


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Click here for Sample Costa Rica Video Log or similar short segments caused by city limits

www.arrb.com.au Advancing safety and efficiency in transport through knowledge


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Hawkeye Survey Viewer or similar short segments caused by city limits

a.k.a : Hawkeye Processing Toolkit

www.arrb.com.au Advancing safety and efficiency in transport through knowledge


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Hmmm… So how does it work? or similar short segments caused by city limits

  • Hawkeye has 3 parts

    • Hardware (Lasers, Cameras, GIPSI, Computers, Heartbeat)

    • Acquire Software (in NSV)

    • Processing Toolkit/Data Viewer Software (in office)

ODO

Hawkeye

Processing Toolkit

Hawkeye

Acquire

Video

Road Information

Risk Calculation Engines

USEFUL INFORMATION

GPS

Lasers

GIPSI

Utility Scale

All knowing Deities Road Uber-Dorks ARRB Employee’s Roads Engineers Planners/Economists Politicians/Laymen

www.arrb.com.au Advancing safety and efficiency in transport through knowledge


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iRAP List of Attributes for Hawkeye.xls or similar short segments caused by city limits

iRAP Test Output Columnar.xls


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Raters or similar short segments caused by city limits

Raters are humans too

Session 4 : Tuesday 27th March 2007

www.arrb.com.au Advancing safety and efficiency in transport through knowledge


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As you will find out over the next couple of days: or similar short segments caused by city limits

Rating is not the most exciting job.

…But someone has to do it

How can we make it easier?

www.arrb.com.au Advancing safety and efficiency in transport through knowledge


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Area of Interest or similar short segments caused by city limits

  • We want to rate only the 50m in front of the car

    • So we don’t double up on the rating

www.arrb.com.au Advancing safety and efficiency in transport through knowledge


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Ratings Definition or similar short segments caused by city limits

  • Lets have a look at the inspection manual

    • Malaysia (video)

    • South Africa (tablet).

www.arrb.com.au Advancing safety and efficiency in transport through knowledge


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All the pretty lights… or similar short segments caused by city limits

…and cables and cameras

High Definition Digital Cameras

Accelerometer/

Odometer

GPS Unit

www.arrb.com.au Advancing safety and efficiency in transport through knowledge


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What does or similar short segments caused by city limitsHawkeye Acquire acquire?

What can we do with it?

  • Odometer Info (Distance, Time)

  • GPS (Lat, Long)

  • Video (Hi-def Video)

  • Digital Profile

  • Geometry (Gyro1, Gyro2)

Speed

GPS, DGPS, WGS84

Video rating

Roughness, Rutting, Texture

Horizontal Curvature,

Vertical Curvature,

Cross fall,

Super Elevation

Altitude

www.arrb.com.au Advancing safety and efficiency in transport through knowledge


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Time for a break or similar short segments caused by city limits


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