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Hybrid Programs in Tourism & Hospitality:. A Review of Strengths, Weaknesses and Implementation Issues. Keynote Address to the International Scientific Conference on “Rethinking of Education and Training for Tourism” April 18-20, 2002 – Zagreb, Croatia

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hybrid programs in tourism hospitality

Hybrid Programs inTourism & Hospitality:

A Review of Strengths, Weaknesses and Implementation Issues

Keynote Address to the International Scientific Conference on“Rethinking of Education and Training for Tourism”April 18-20, 2002 – Zagreb, Croatia

J.R. Brent Ritchie / Simon Hudson / Lorn SheehanUniversity of Calgary, CANADA

introduction
Introduction
  • Tourism & Hospitality industry requires technical skills to service growing number of visitors
  • Now there is a desirability to hire employees who possess industry skills, basic business training,+ liberal arts education
  • How to meet this demand?

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

some examples of hybrid programs
Some Examples of Hybrid Programs
  • Bachelor of Hotel & Restaurant Management (BHRM)– University of Calgary, CANADA
  • Bachelor of Business (Tourism & Hospitality)– Latrobe University, AUSTRALIA
  • Tourism Management Program– Brighton University, UNITED KINGDOM

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

growth of tourism education
Growth of Tourism Education
  • Tourism education has expanded rapidly over the last few decades
  • This reflects growing recognition of tourism as one of the world’s most significant economic, social & environmental forces
  • Also reflects one of the major challenges in this industry—recruit, develop & retain employees

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

previous research
Previous Research
  • Tourism is multi-faceted &inherently multi-disciplinary
  • Difficult to classify and designsyllabi that are academicallyrigorous and relevant to thechanging needs of the employment market

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

the response
The Response
  • Australia – partnership with Technical and Further Education (TAFE) Colleges
  • UK – Credit Accumulation Transfer Schemes (CATS); Accreditation for Prior Learning (APEL); and International School of Tourism and Hotel Management (ISTHM)
  • Canada – the ‘2+2 model’ Hybrid BHRM Program

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

the calgary hybrid program
The Calgary Hybrid Program
  • BHRM has been in place since 1995
  • Now includes 19 partner institutions across Canada
  • This program is a leading innovation of its type
  • Graduates attract job offers from all over the world
  • They possess operational skills + the capability of adapting to evolution of the workplace & global markets

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

calgary bhrm program

2 years atDiploma Granting Institution

Diploma in Hotel and Restaurant Management

  • Technical education in the operation ofhotels and restaurants
  • Coursework has 2 thrusts:
    • 1.General Management knowledge
    • 2.Hotel and Restaurant Management skills
Calgary BHRM Program

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

calgary bhrm program9

2 years at

University of Calgary

Critical thinking skills

Coursework has 3 major thrusts:

1. General Management knowledge

2. Tourism Management knowledge

3. General Education knowledge

Bachelor of Hotel and Resort Management Degree

Calgary BHRM Program

Selection of Top two graduatesfrom 19 Diploma Granting Technical Institutions

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

calgary bhrm program details

Diploma Granting Institution Courses

Diploma Granting Institution Courses

40% General Education

25% Hotel Management

25% Food & Beverage

10% Integrative Tourism

Hotel & Restaurant Management Diploma Awarded

byDiploma Granting Institution

Calgary BHRM Program details

Year 1

60% Core Business

20% Hotel Management

20% Food & Beverage

Year 2

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

calgary bhrm program details11

University of Calgary Courses

50% General Education

40% Core Business

10% Integrative Tourism

University of Calgary Courses

50% General Education

30% Tourism Business

20% Integrative Tourism

Bachelor of Hotel and Resort ManagementDegree Awarded

by

University of Calgary

Calgary BHRM Program details

Year 3

Year 4

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

latrobe university

Year 1

2 x TAFE Subjects

6 x University Subjects

Certificate

Year 2

1 x TAFE Subject

7 x University Subjects

 8 x University Subjects

Diploma (optional)

Alternate for students not wanting to complete diploma

Year 3

8 x University Subjects

Degree or Graduate Diploma

Year 4

5 x University Subjects

Honours Degree(by invitation from Head of School)

LaTrobe University

B.Bus (Tourism and Hospitality)

NOTE: TAFE is the acronym for Technical and Further Education

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

latrobe university13

Philosophy of the LaTrobe Multi-Entry, Multi-Exit Program

The philosophy that underpins the hospitality and tourism courses at LaTrobe seeks to blend vocational training with a broad management education for the industry’s future leaders. The Bachelor of Business (Tourism and Hospitality) combines the skills needed for hospitality supervision with business management and an understanding of the dynamics of the tourism industry. The Bachelor of Business (Tourism Management) develops the professional skills required in the tourism and travel industries with a thorough background in general business and management.

Students can enter these degrees knowing that their career options are open and varied. At the end of their first year of studies, if their interests or vocation needs so determine, they can leave either course with a fully recognized TAFE Certificate in Hospitality or in Tourism, and return later when their career demands higher qualifications. Similarly, they can exit the course at the end of their second year with a nationally recognized Diploma in Hospitality Management or Diploma in Tourism. Students are not locked into an all-or-nothing three-year program. In short, the course is designed to meet the student’s own needs for education when they require it—providing every opportunity to advance their qualifications as their own career develops.

LaTrobe University

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

brighton university

Diploma in Tourism or Hospitality

Management

2 or 3 years atDiploma Granting Institution(UK or Overseas)*

Technical education in the operation ofhotels and restaurants

Selection of top graduatesfrom Diploma Granting Institutions

Tourism Management

Brighton University

BA (Honours) Tourism Management or Hospitality Management

*Overseas Partner Institutions:

· Treider, Oslo, Norway

· Freibourg, Germany

· Deventer College, Holland

· Bad Honneff, Bonn, Germany

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

brighton university15

1 or 2 years at

  • University of Brighton
  • Level 2
  • Operational Management expertise
  • Level 3
  • Public Sector Tourism, Planning& Development
  • Plus specializations

BA (Hons) in:

·Hospitality Management

· International Hospitality Management

· International Tourism Management

· Tourism Management

· Travel Management

Brighton University

BA (Honours) Tourism Management or Hospitality Management

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

the calgary hybrid program16
The Calgary Hybrid Program

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

the calgary hybrid program17
The Calgary Hybrid Program
  • Up Next:
    • Special strengths of the Calgary Program
    • Implementation issues and challenges
    • The changing world of the past decade & impacts on Tourism Education
    • Looking to the future

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

special strengths of the calgary hybrid bhrm program
Special Strengths of the CalgaryHybrid BHRM Program
  • Graduates possess a high level of technical skills in hospitality management that make them immediately functional on job entry
  • Graduates have been exposed to a significant number of courses from a wide range of academic disciplines, thus enhancing their understanding of society as a whole
  • Graduates have undertaken an in-depth study of the tourism and hospitality sector, its components, how it functions, and how the sector contributes to the well being of society

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

special strengths of the calgary hybrid bhrm program19
Special Strengths of the CalgaryHybrid BHRM Program
  • Graduates have learned how business works in general, as well as the roles of each of the functional areas of business, and the skills required in each area
  • Graduates have learned the fundamentals of tourism and hospitality management at both the firm and destination level. This provides a unique understanding of a Destination Management Organization provides leadership and coordination to tourism and hospitality firms, so as to make the total destination competitive on a sustainable basis

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

special strengths of the calgary hybrid bhrm program20
Special Strengths of the CalgaryHybrid BHRM Program
  • Graduates have had the opportunity to interact with, and share ideas with the leading students in their field from all across Canada
  • Graduates have had the opportunity to form life-long friendships and relationships that will serve them well in their careers, and be of immense value to the Canadian tourism industry

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

special strengths of the calgary hybrid bhrm program21
Special Strengths of the CalgaryHybrid BHRM Program
  • Graduates have been exposed to some of the leading teachers and researchers in the field of tourism and hospitality studies. In addition to acquiring practical skills, they have been intellectually challenged in a way that goes far beyond that of many programs.
  • Graduates have access to employment opportunities and management training programs in some of the world’s leading hotel, resort, and tourism attractions. Indeed, most have several offers from which to choose.

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

issues challenges for implementing and managing the calgary hybrid bhrm program
Issues & Challenges for Implementing and Managing the Calgary Hybrid BHRM Program
  • Tourism is still regarded with skepticism by many in the academic community. Much like women, tourism researchers must continually demonstrate they are better than colleagues in many disciplines in order to merit scholarly recognition.
  • Basic funding for tourism education in Canada still lags far behind competitors, such as Australia in particular

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

issues challenges for implementing and managing the calgary hybrid bhrm program23
Issues & Challenges for Implementing and Managing the Calgary Hybrid BHRM Program
  • With notable exceptions (e.g. Canadian Pacific, now Fairmount Hotels & Resorts) the tourism sector in Canada is reluctant to provide the enrichment funding that permits good programs to become great ones
  • Despite scholarship support, the fact that Canada is a vast country still makes the total cost of studying in Calgary much higher than studying at a local university

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

issues challenges for implementing and managing the calgary hybrid bhrm program24
Issues & Challenges for Implementing and Managing the Calgary Hybrid BHRM Program
  • The graduates of the leading partner technical institutes are typically flooded with job offers after completing their technical programs. As such, it requires these individuals to take a long term career perspective to enter the BHRM program. This is not always easy for a young person who has lived their life to date on a very basic income.

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

issues challenges for implementing and managing the calgary hybrid bhrm program25
Issues & Challenges for Implementing and Managing the Calgary Hybrid BHRM Program
  • A true appreciation of what the BHRM program will do to enhance their personal and career satisfaction must be explained in detail by our recruiting team. This team must be sent every year to each of the 19 partner institutions if we are to successfully convey our message to future graduates. And since we can accept only 2-3 individuals from each Institute, this is a high cost process. Again, without the enrichment support from Canadian Pacific, this essential promotional effort would not be possible in today’s world of restrained university budgets.

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

issues challenges for implementing and managing the calgary hybrid bhrm program26
Issues & Challenges for Implementing and Managing the Calgary Hybrid BHRM Program
  • The accreditation standards of the American Association of College and Schools of Business (AACSB) are aimed towards the “traditional” business school program. As such, they have little tolerance for the idiosyncrasies of the content and structure of the Hybrid BHRM. This requires that we constantly must seek to modify not only the program itself, but also the articulation agreements that make it possible for the program to exist.

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

issues challenges for implementing and managing the calgary hybrid bhrm program27
Issues & Challenges for Implementing and Managing the Calgary Hybrid BHRM Program
  • The recent World Tourism Organization (WTO) TedQual accreditation standards, while optimal, create yet another costly and diversionary accreditation standard and data collection process for those programs that which to support WTO in its efforts to maintain and raise the quality of tourism education.

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

issues challenges for implementing and managing the calgary hybrid bhrm program28
Issues & Challenges for Implementing and Managing the Calgary Hybrid BHRM Program
  • The drafting of articulation agreements with each of the 19 cooperating partners was a long and laborious process since each of the institutions had slightly varying program requirements.

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

the changing world impacts on tourism education
The Changing World & Impactson Tourism Education
  • An ongoing reduction in public funding for university level education, and a resultant pressure for privatization
  • A growing demand for computer based distance education
  • Increasing consolidation of key sectors of the tourism industry (most notably airlines and hotels)
  • A growing lack of personnel willing to fill many of the frontline service functions required by the traditional tourism industry in developed countries, and resulting pressures to automate/mechanize such tasks where possible

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

the changing world impacts on tourism education30
The Changing World & Impactson Tourism Education
  • Cutbacks in commission levels paid to travel agencies, with resulting lower levels of service, direct charges to customers, and transfer of certain tasks to consumers
  • Increased terrorism, with a resultant fear of travel, in general, and to specific destinations in particular. As a consequence, the study of tourism must be re-conceptualized
  • The need for increased airport security has increased both the cost and the “hassle factor” of travel by air

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

the changing world impacts on tourism education31
The Changing World & Impactson Tourism Education
  • Growing globalization has increased the need for an international perspective on tourism education and training
  • The changing nature of the “Travel Destination” has placed an increased emphasis on the need for a destination approach to educational programming and supporting teaching materials
  • The growing sophistication of many tourism positions is slowly increasing the demand for certain highly trained specialists and for graduate level programs

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

the changing world impacts on tourism education32
The Changing World & Impactson Tourism Education
  • The growing sophistication of travellers is changing their expectations with respect to the kinds of experiences, products, and service quality levels that they are expecting—indeed, demanding
  • The qualification requirements of tourism educators are being steadily raised, with an accompanying growth in the demand for “educating the educators” programs
  • The introduction of accreditation standards (e.g. WTO TedQual) is forcing education institutions to increase the teaching and research skills of educators

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

the changing world impacts on tourism education33
The Changing World & Impactson Tourism Education
  • Increasing pressure to balance economic performance with environmental stewardship is creating pressure for adjustments in the emphasis placed on these areas within tourism education programming
  • Certain leaders in the tourism industry are starting to realize that unless they step forward to support and enrich tourism education and training in a significant way, that such programs risk being dropped by education/training institutions.

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

looking to the future
Looking to the Future…

RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

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