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Classical Greece. Identify the ways geography & climate shaped Greek life. Explain the rise & development of the Mycenaean civilization. Describe how Homer & Greek myths contributed to early Greek culture. Temple of Athena. The Parthenon. Ancient Greece. Ancient Greece.

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Classical Greece

  • Identify the ways geography & climate shaped Greek life.

  • Explain the rise & development of the Mycenaean civilization.

  • Describe how Homer & Greek myths contributed to early Greek culture.






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Geography Shapes Greek Life

  • Mountainous peninsula with 2,000 islands

  • Most Greeks lived near the coastline

  • Seaways linked most parts of Greece

  • Sea travel will lead to large amounts of trade (no natural resources)

  • ¾ of Greece covered by mountains

  • Mountains significantly influenced Greek politics

  • Greeks developed small independent communities


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Mycenaean Civilization

  • Mycenae was located in southern Greece

  • Protected by ridge and a wall that was 20 ft thick

  • Traded with Syria, Egypt, Italy, & Crete

  • The Minoans influenced their language, religious practices, literature, & politics

  • Fought a 10 year war against Troy

  • Trojan War


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Greek Culture Declines

  • Mycenaean’s were destroyed by the Dorians

  • Dorians were less advanced

  • Nothing was written during this 400 year period (Dorian Age)

  • Homer: spread Greek history through the spoken word (Iliad & Odyssey)

  • Myths helped Greeks understand the mysteries of life

  • Controlled love, hate, fear, & jealousy


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Warring City-States

I. Identify the different political systems that developed in the Greek city-states.

  • Describe the government of Athens.

  • Summarize the battles & results of the Persian Wars.


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Greek Political Structures

  • Polis: basic political unit in ancient Greece

  • Monarchy: ruled by single person (king)

  • Aristocracy: ruled by small group of rich families

  • Oligarchy: government ruled by a few powerful people

  • Tyrants: took control by appealing to the common people for support

  • Set up building programs, provided jobs, housing


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Athens Builds a Limited Democracy

  • Democracy: rule by the people

  • Draco: all Athenians were equal under the law

  • Enforced most laws with death penalty

  • Debt Slavery: put into slavery to repay debts

  • 594 BC Solon outlaws slavery

  • Divided Athens into four social classes

  • Only the first three could hold office


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Athenian Education

  • Only wealthy families received formal educations

  • Studied reading, grammar, poetry, history, math, music, logic & public speaking

  • Boys went to military schools

  • Girls did not attend schools

  • Taught at home: child rearing, weaving, preparing meals


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Sparta Builds A Military State

  • Took over Messenia, forced people to stay on the land & work (Helots)

  • Dedicated themselves to building a strong military state

  • Government had several branches: assembly, elected officials, council of elders

  • Men served in the army until they were 60

  • Enlisted in army by age 7

  • Harsh training produced tough soldiers


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The Persian Wars

  • Sparta & Athens united against Persian Empire

  • 490 BC a Persian fleet landed at Marathon

  • 10,000 Greeks vs. 25,000 Persians

  • Greeks were arranged in Phalanxes

  • Defeated the Persians (6,000 Persians killed, less than 200 Greeks killed)

  • Pheidippides was chosen to race back to Athens to warn the city (died after giving message)


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Thermopylae & Salamis

  • 480 BC, Persian King Xerxes attempted to destroy Athens

  • Spartans valiant sacrifice saved Athens

  • All were killed at Thermopylae

  • Xerxes marched into Athens & burned it down (Athens evacuated)

  • Persian navy was trapped in the Salimis channel

  • Greek navy used battering rams to defeat the Persians


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Consequences of the Persian Wars

  • Greeks were able to practice democracy

  • Athens became the leader of Greece, economically, socially, & philosophically

  • With no threat of war Athens was able to concentrate on creativity (thinking)


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Democracy & Greece’s Golden Age

  • Who was Pericles & what were his goals?

  • Describe Greek architecture, art, dramatists, historians, & philosophers.

  • Explain the major conflicts of the Peloponnesian War.


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Pericles’ Plan for Athens

  • Governed for 32 years

  • Strengthened Athenian Democracy by paying public officials

  • Anyone who is elected could hold public office (direct democracy)

  • Took $ from Delian league to strengthen the Athenian Navy & to beautify Athens



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Greek Culture

  • Architecture/Sculptures were in classical style (graceful, perfect, balance, serenity)

  • Tragedy: serious drama (love, hate, war, or betrayal) Tragic Hero (pride)

  • Famous playwrights: Aeschylus (Orestia), Sophocles (Oedipus), & Euripides (Medea)

  • Comedy: made fun of politics, war, etc.

  • Herodotus: book on Persian War considered to be first history book

  • Greeks believed they could learn from the past


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The Peloponnesian War

  • War between Sparta & Athens

  • Athens had the stronger navy

  • Sparta had the stronger army

  • Sparta invaded Athens territory burning food supply (grain fields)

  • Pericles called for all citizens to move to the city (Athens was well protected)

  • Plague struck the second year that killed 1/3 of Athenian population

  • 421 BC both groups sign truce


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Philosophers Search for Truth

  • Socrates: wanted people to question themselves & their character

  • People hold contradictory opinions

  • Plato: student of Socrates

  • Wrote “The Republic”, perfectly formed govt.

  • Aristotle: argued according to the rules of logic (scientific method)

  • Teacher of Alexander


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