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Italy and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire) Illustrate the Demographic Divide in 2008. PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Italy and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire) Illustrate the Demographic Divide in 2008. Source: Carl Haub and Mary Mederios Kent, 2008 World Population Data Sheet . © 2008 POPULATION REFERENCE BUREAU. Chapter 2 Outline. World Population Growth

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Italy and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire) Illustrate the Demographic Divide in 2008.

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Italy and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire) Illustrate the Demographic Divide in 2008.

Source: Carl Haub and Mary Mederios Kent, 2008 World Population Data Sheet.

© 2008 POPULATION REFERENCE BUREAU


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Chapter 2 Outline

  • World Population Growth

  • Geographic Distribution Of The World’s Population

  • Global Variation In Population Size And Growth

  • Global Demographic Contrasts


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World Population Growth

  • During the first 90% of human existence, the population of the world had grown only to the size of today’s New York City.

  • Between 1750 and 1950, the world’s population grew from 800 million to 2.5 billion.

  • Since 1950 it has expanded to more than six billion.


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World Population Growth Through History

Billions

12

11

2100

10

9

Modern

Age

Old

8

Iron

Bronze

Middle

Stone

Age

New Stone Age

Ages

Age

Age

7

Future

6

2000

5

4

1975

3

1950

2

1900

1

1800

Black Death

The Plague

2000

1+ million

7000

6000

5000

3000

1000

A.D.

4000

A.D.

A.D.

A.D.

A.D.

A.D.

years

B.C.

B.C.

B.C.

B.C.

B.C.

B.C.

B.C.

1

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

Source: Population Reference Bureau; and United Nations, World Population Projections to 2100 (1998).


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Why Was Early Growth Slow?

  • During the first 99% of human history death rates were high.

  • During the hunting-gathering phase, life expectancy averaged 20 years.

    • More than half of children born will died before 5.

    • The average woman who survived the reproductive years would have to bear nearly 7 children to assure 2 survived to adulthood.


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Why Are More Recent Increases so Rapid?

  • Acceleration in population after 1750 was due to declines in the death rate that accompanied the Industrial Revolution.

    • People were eating better, wearing warmer clothes, bathing more often and drinking cleaner water.

  • Continuing population increases are due to dramatic declines in mortality without a commensurate decline in fertility.


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Women of Childbearing Age and Fertility

Worldwide

Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2002 Revision (medium scenario), 2003.


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To Slow Population Growth, Developing Countries’ Fertility Decline Must Be Rapid.

Average Lifetime Births per Woman: 1800-2007

Sources: (United States) Ansley Coale and Melvin Zelnik (1963); and National Center for Health Statistics. (Bangladesh) United Nations;

Demographic and Health Surveys; and other surveys


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Population in Countries With Low Fertility

Decline or Growth, 2002-2025

Percent

Country (average number of children per woman)

China (1.8)

South Korea (1.4)

Trinidad & Tobago (1.6)

Italy (1.2)

Russia (1.1)

Bulgaria (1.1)

Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2002 Revision (medium scenario), 2003.


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Lavender - 20 and 30 millionPink –10 and 20 millionGrey - 5 and 10 million.

Orange –Greater than 100 millionBlue - 50 and 100 millionGreen -40 and 50 millionYellow - 30 and 40 million


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Population Growth


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Population Growth


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Population Growth


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Doubling Time

  • The time required for a population to double if the current rate of growth continues.

  • The doubling time is approximately equal to 69 divided by the growth rate.

  • Estimate the world’s rate of growth in the year 2003 to be 1.2% per year, the doubling time is 58 years.


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Redistribution of the World’s Population through Migration

  • Migration streams flow from rapidly growing areas into less rapidly growing ones:

    • Latin America and Asia to the United States

    • Asia to Canada

    • Africa and Asia to Europe

  • In earlier decades, as population grew dense in a region, people moved to less populated areas.


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European Expansion

  • Europeans began to stake out the less developed areas of the world in the 15th and 16th centuries.

  • Before this expansion, Europeans represented 18% of the world’s population.

  • By the 1930s, people of European origin in Europe, North America, and Oceania accounted for 35% of the world’s population.


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The Urban Revolution

  • As recently as 1800, less than 1% of the world’s population lived in cities of 100,000 or more.

  • More than 1/3 of all humans now live in cities of that size.

  • Urban populations grew in some countries even without industrialization, as places sprang up where goods and services were exchanged.


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World Population Increase


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Future Population Growth


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World Population Clock

2009

Source: Population Reference Bureau, 2009 World Population Data Sheet.


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How Many People Have Ever Lived?


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