Ch. 2-Anatomy and Physiology of Body Systems. 2.1 Anatomical Terminology. The terms of p osi tion include Anatomical position —The victim is standing erect, arms down to the sides , palms facing forward. “Right” and “left” refer to the victim’s right and left.
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The terms of position include
Right lateral recumbent position (recovery/coma position)
Left lateral recumbent position (recovery/coma position)
Modified HAINES position
Superior—above, or higher than a point of reference (e.g., The knee is superior to the ankle.)
Inferior—below, or lower than a point of reference (e.g., The wrist is inferior to the elbow.)
Anterior—toward the front
Posterior—toward the back
Medial—toward the midline or center of the body
Lateral—to the right or left of the midline; away from the midline
Superficial—near the surface
Deep—remote from the surface
External—outsideTerms of Direction and Location
1. A victim lying on his or her back is in the ____________ position. (supine/prone/lateral)
2. A victim lying on her or his stomach is in the ____________ position. (supine/prone/lateral)
3. ____________ means above a point of reference.
4. ____________ means below a point of reference.
5. A wound near the surface is a ____________ wound.
1. Skeletal muscle, or voluntary muscle, is under
a person’s conscious control.
2. Smooth muscle, or involuntary muscle, is muscle
over which a person has little or no conscious control.
3. Cardiac muscle forms the walls of the heart and
is made up of a cellular mesh.
articulate- To fit into each other
fracture- A break in the bone
skeletal (voluntary) muscle- Muscle that is under direct voluntary control of the brain
smooth muscle- The muscles found in the walls of the internal organs and blood vessels, generally not under voluntary control
involuntary muscle- Smooth muscle over which a person has no voluntary or conscious control
cardiac muscle- The muscle that makes up the heartVocabulary
1. The largest bone in the body is the __________. (tibia/humerus/femur)
2. Dislocation will occur at _________________.
3. Deliberate acts, such as walking and talking, depend on ____________ muscle. (skeletal/smooth/cardiac)
4. The movement of the intestines depends on ____________ muscle. (skeletal/smooth/cardiac)
1. The circulatory system has two major fluid transportation
systems: the cardiovascular and the ____________.
2. The mechanical process of moving air into and out of the lungs is called ____________. (inspiration/ventilation/expiration)
3. The urinary system filters and ____________ body wastes. (breaks down/metabolizes/eliminates)
4. Endocrine glands, which have no ducts, secrete ____________ directly into the bloodstream.
The nervous system
Epidermis- the outermost layer
Dermis- the inner layer, contains a vast
network of blood vessels
1. The nervous system has two main functions: communication and ____________. (sensation/control/reaction)
2. The brain and spinal cord make up the ____________.
(autonomic nervous system/central nervous system/voluntary nervous system)
3. The peripheral nervous system is nerves located outside the ____________. (brain/spinal cord/brain and spinal cord)
4. The “fight-or-flight” syndrome is regulated by the ____________.
(parasympathetic nervous system/sympathetic nervous system/ central nervous system)
5. The outer layer of the skin is called the ____________. (epidermis/dermis/subcutaneous)
6. The cavity that contains the urinary bladder is the ____________. (abdominal/thoracic/pelvic)