Panel II - Biofuels
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Panel II - Biofuels. Alfred Szwarc IPC’s Fall Seminar “Sustainability in the Food & Agricultural Sector” Stratford-Upon-Avon, October 15 – 16, 2007. UNICA is the leading Brazilian association of sugar & ethanol producers. Ethanol related UNICA’s goals:

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Panel II - Biofuels

Alfred Szwarc

IPC’s Fall Seminar “Sustainability in the Food & Agricultural Sector”

Stratford-Upon-Avon, October 15 – 16, 2007


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UNICA is the leading Brazilian association of sugar & ethanol producers

  • Ethanol related UNICA’s goals:

  • structure an international fuel ethanol market

  • consolidate ethanol as a global energy commodity

  • develop new applications and markets

  • incentive adoption of best practices


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Ethanol from Sugar Cane ethanol producers

  • The Industry in Brazil

  • Sustainability Issues

  • Trade Issues

  • Concluding Remarks


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Sugar Cane ethanol producers

Sugar Cane is the prime ethanol feedstok in Brazil

Semi-perennial plant: lasts for about 5 crop seasons with high yields and has many benefits over traditional row crops:

less energy to plant & cultivate; root system reduces erosion & effective carbon uptake; relatively low defensive & fertilizer requirements; many varieties.


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Sugar Cane: Source of Energy ethanol producers

276 kg/t 50% humidity

165 kg/t 15%humidity

1/3

JUICE

1/3

BAGASSE

1/3

STRAW

Hydrolysis

Hydrolysis

ETHANOL

SUGAR

(153 kg/t)

CO-GENERATION

OF ELECTRICITY

MOLASSES

Straw: tops and leaves of sugar cane

Cellulosic ethanol revolution: when will it take place?

Source: Unica.


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Current plant ethanol producers

Plant in construction

or in project

Where is the Sugar Cane?

Amazon Rain Forest

Sugar Cane Expansion Area

Wetlands

Sugar cane

Source: NIPE-UNICAMP, IBGE and CTC.


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Sugar Cane in Brazil ethanol producers

Crop Season 2006/07

RR

0 %

AP

0 %

CE

0,01%

AM

0,05%

PA

0,16 %

MA

0,39%

RN, PE, PB, AL

10,9 %

PI

0,17%

RO

0 %

TO

0,04%

AC

0 %

BA

0,51 %

SE

0,27 %

MT

3,09 %

GO

3,79 %

MG

6,82 %

MS

2,73 %

ES0,68 %

SP

62,05 %

RJ0,81 %

PR

7,51 %

SC

0 %

RS

0,02 %

Source: Unica


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Availability of Arable Land ethanol producers

Note: Area harvested in 2004. Arable land in equivalent potential.

Source: FAO, Land Resource Potential and Constraints at Regional and Country Level (2000); FAO (2007). Prepared by ICONE.


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Agricultural Defensives Consumption ethanol producers

Main Crops - 2006

kg of active substance per hectare

Source: Sindag, IBGE, 2007


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Fertilizer Consumption ethanol producers

Main Crops - 2006

Metric Ton per hectare

Source: Anuário estatístico do setor de fertilizantes 2006. Associação Nacional para Difusão de Adubos-ANDA. São Paulo, 2007. p.34


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Agriculture Related Soil Losses ethanol producers

Fonte: Bertoni, et al. (1998), apud Donzelli, J.L. Erosão na cultura da cana-de-açúcar: situação e perspectivas. In: Macedo, I.de C. (org). A energia da cana-de-açúcar, São Paulo. 2005.


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Water Consumption ethanol producers

  • In most of the Brazilian territory “Dry Farming” is the dominant practice because of sufficient rainfall.

  • Irrigation in Brazil’s crop areas has been required in less than 4 M ha (< 6% of present agriculture land).

  • Irrigation in sugar cane production is more widespread in the NE, however “Salvation Irrigation” and “Suplementary Irrigation” are adopted according to the need.

  • Rational use of water in the sugar cane industry has increased considerably with reuse and recycle practices.

  • Presently the average consumption of water in São Paulo State’s sugar cane industry is in the order of 1.8 m3/tonne of sugar cane (65% less than in 1997); ongoing efforts to reduce further this volume.


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Ferti-irrigation ethanol producers

Ferti-Irrigation with stllage (vinasse) helps to reduce use of water & chemical fertilizers and is a good practice to recover soil fertility


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Ethanol Productivity ethanol producers

Liters per Hectare

Source IEA – International Energy Agency (2005), MTEC,, Icone, Unica.


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End of Pre-Harvest Field Burning ethanol producers

harvest % of non-burnt cane

Note: 2007 refers to harvested area until August.

Source: CTC, Unica.


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Ethanol Productivity ethanol producers

Agricultural and Industrial Gains

Source: CTC, Unica


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Energy Balance ethanol producers

(*) Current practice (**) Biorefinery concept using biogas to generate energy

Source: F.O. Licht, Macedo, I et alii 2004, NREL 2002


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Typical Sugar & Ethanol Plant in Brazil ethanol producers

Ethanol storage tanks

Distillery

Sugar plant

Bagasse

Sugar cane field


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Bioenergy ethanol producers

Sugar & Ethanol plants produce own thermal & electric energy using bagasse as a fuel and co-generation systems and sell excess electricity to the public grid

bagasse

steam

electricity

Source: UNICA


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Economic Feasibility ethanol producers

Brazilian Ethanol Has the Lowest Cost

Index

Source: F.O.Licht, Unica


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Jobs in the Sugar Cane Industry ethanol producers

Formal Jobs

982.604

900.768

764.593

642.848

Source: MORAES, M.A.F. de. Número e qualidade dos empregos na agroindústria da cana-de-açúcar. In: A energia da cana-de-açúcar, Brazil, 2007.


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Formal Jobs Registration Rate ethanol producers

Source: MORAES, M.A.F. de. Número e qualidade dos empregos na agroindústria da cana-de-açúcar. In: A energia da cana-de-açúcar, Brazil, 2007.


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Environmental Merits ethanol producers

Selected Fuel Characteristics


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Greenhouse Gas Emissions ethanol producers

  • Avoided GHG emissions in Brazil in 2003 due to the sugar cane industry are equivalent to the emission of GHG by Norway:

  • ethanol substituting for gasoline: 27,5 M t CO2 eq.bagasse in sugar production: 5,7 M t CO2 eq.

Source: Macedo, I et alii, 2004


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Social Responsibility Programs ethanol producers

Programs conducted by UNICA’s associates since 2004

Source: Unica


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Sugar Cane Industry Expansion ethanol producers

Pasture Land in Brazil: 220 M ha. Expansion is being carried out mostly in reclaimed pasture land in the Center-South Region

Source: Unica, Copersucar and Cogen.


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Agroenergy Dilemma ethanol producers

Energy X Food X Feed

  • Rapid demand growth for ethanol, dry climate and strong demand from Asia have all been contributing to grain prices increase;

  • While ethanol production has been increasing in Brazil sugar prices (sugar is food) have been low and stable;

  • Debate has been fueled by a campaign against biofuels and ethanol has become the preferred scapegoat to justify price increase;

  • Hunger has been due primarily to inadequate income distribution not food scarcity;

  • Agriculture productivity is increasing and there is considerable arable land to be used;

  • Cellulosic ethanol is a good promise;


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Ethanol Sustainability ethanol producers

  • Based on the “Triple Bottom Line” requirements: SOCIAL, ECONOMICALandENVIRONMENTAL.

  • BENCHMARKED against fossil fuels.

  • UNIVERSAL: applied internationally to all producers, feedstocks & production processes.

  • Agreed within aMULTI-STAKEHOLDERnegotiation process.

  • Based on a transparent process defined byCLEAR PRINCIPLES, BALANCED CRITERIA and OBJECTIVE INDICATORS.

  • VOLUNTARY:to reward those who invest in the process.

  • Applied PROGRESSIVELY.

Certification Scheme


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Ethanol International Trade ethanol producers

  • Energy Security

  • Diversification of Energy Sources & Energy Mix

  • Environmental Issues (global warming, urban pollution)

  • Rural Development

Drivers

Challenges

  • Doha ?

  • Reduction/Elimination of Trade Barriers

  • More Producers & Consumers

  • Harmonization of Product Quality Standards

  • Closer Relationship with Stakeholders (motor industry, oil industry, fuel distributors, governments, NGO’s etc.)

  • Wider Use of Futures Market Contracts (BM&F, NYBOT, CBOT etc.)


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Concluding Remarks ethanol producers

Growing popularity of bioethanol has created momentum for the development of an international market.

Sound policies, environmental care, social responsibility, technological development, standards harmonization, trade barriers elimination and partnershipare key for the successful development of a well structured international market.


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