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3 Abrahamic Religions. Judaism Christianity Islam All originated in Southwest Asia All are monotheistic All recognize Abraham as their first prophet. Judaism . Judaism. Oldest surviving of the monotheistic religions.

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3 abrahamic religions
3 Abrahamic Religions

  • Judaism

  • Christianity

  • Islam

    • All originated in Southwest Asia

    • All are monotheistic

    • All recognize Abraham as their first prophet



Judaism1
Judaism

  • Oldest surviving of the monotheistic religions.

  • Founded approx. 3900 years ago with a covenant between Abraham and God.

    • God asked Abraham to move from Ur to Canaan. In return he promised Abraham’s descendents a homeland.



1 st diaspora
1st Diaspora

  • Approx. 3800 years ago the Hebrews were forced to leave their land because of drought and famine.

  • Migrated to Egypt

  • Eventually enslaved by the Egyptians and forced to do hard labor.


2 nd covenant
2nd Covenant

  • Approx. 450 years after God’s covenant with Abraham, God made a covenant with Moses.

  • Moses led the Jews out of slavery (the exodus) back to the land of Canaan.

  • At the top of mount Sinai, Moses made a covenant with God producing the 10 Commandments

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oLRge3L1Ijc


2 nd diaspora
2nd Diaspora

  • Approx. 70 C.E. the Hebrews revolted against Roman rule.

  • A brutal crackdown ensued.

  • Surviving Jews were forced out of Palestine

  • The second temple of Solomon was destroyed.


Beliefs
Beliefs

  • Strictly monotheistic

  • God = Yahweh

  • Torah: Jewish law

  • Talmud: Collection of writings based on the Torah and traditions…began in 400s C.E.


Beliefs ii
Beliefs II

  • Shema: Profession of faith, “Hear O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is One.”

  • “There is no instinctive evil, original sin or fundamental impurity in human beings since people are made in God’s image.”

  • Does not recognize Jesus Christ as the Messiah.

  • Belief in an afterlife and judgment day.


Key festivals
Key Festivals

  • Rosh Hashanah: The beginning of the Jewish New Year

  • Yom Kippur: The Day of Atonement, the last 10 days of penitence which marks the opening of the New Year.

  • Hanukkah: An eight day festival which commemorates the re-dedication of the temple in Jerusalem after expelling the occupying Syrians in 164 BCE


Key festivals ii
Key Festivals II

  • Passover (Pesach): Week long memorial retelling the Israelites’ release from Egypt

  • Bar Mitzvah: Coming of age for boys aged 13. In liberal traditions, an equivalent ceremony (Bat Mitzvah) is carried out for girls

  • Shabbat (Sabbath): Day of rest, worship and fasting, from sunset Friday to sunset Saturday, requiring strict observance for Orthodox Jews


Third diaspora
Third Diaspora

  • Jews throughout Europe were rounded up and placed into concentration/labor camps by Nazi occupiers.

  • Approx. 5.5 million Jews were murdered during the Holocaust.


Today
Today

  • Approx. 12 to 18 million Jews in the world

  • 1 Israel (2009)[1] 5,636,000 75.5% 43%

  • 2 United States (2007)[2`] 5,275,000 1.7% 40.3%

  • 3 France 492,000 0.9% 3.76%

  • 4 Canada 373,500 1.2% 2.7%

  • 5 United Kingdom 297,000 0.6% 2.4%


Holy city
Holy City

  • Jerusalem: Home of the “western wall”, the last remaining part of Solomon’s 2nd temple.



Christianity
Christianity

  • World’s largest religion 2.1 billion

  • Over 38,000 different denominations of Christianity throughout the world.

  • Two largest:

    • Catholicism (approx. 1.1 billion)

    • Protestantism (approx. 650 million)


Jesus christ
Jesus Christ

  • Christianity is the religion based on the life, death and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, also known as the Christ or Messiah.

  • Jesus was a Jewish teacher and prophet who lived in Palestine in the first century CE.

  • He revealed himself to be the Son of God in fulfillment of Hebrew scripture.


Jesus christ con t
Jesus Christ con’t

  • His assertion to be the son of God created both political and religious enemies among Jews and Romans alike.

  • Christ is crucified at the age of 34.

  • Crucifixion:

    • Cruel form of death

    • Nailed to a cross through the wrists and ankles

    • Eventually die of suffocation


Beliefs1
Beliefs

  • Belief in original sin

  • Belief in Baptism

  • Belief that the Old Testament (Torah) is holy.

  • Belief that Jesus Christ was the prophesized messiah from the Old Testament.

  • Christians believe that there is only one God, who is all-powerful and all-knowing.


Beliefs con t
Beliefs con’t

  • Most Christians believe that God is a Trinity made up of the Father, the Son and Holy Spirit.

  • The second person of the Trinity, God the Son, became a human being in the person of Jesus.

  • Jesus was born to a human woman, Mary (whom many believe was a virgin), and was subject to pain, suffering, and sorrow like other human beings.


Beliefs con t1
Beliefs con’t

  • Jesus was put to death on a cross and three days later was raised from the dead (the resurrection). Forty days after this he ascended to heaven (the ascension).

  • After Jesus’ resurrection and ascension, the Holy Spirit was sent to bring the knowledge and power of Jesus to the church.


Beliefs con t2
Beliefs con’t

  • Christians believe in eternal life after death, but not earthly reincarnation.

  • Christians await the second coming of Christ which will bring fulfillment of the Kingdom of God and a final day of judgment.


The apostles creed
The Apostles’ Creed

  • 12 Apostles

    • 12 closest followers of Jesus Christ that went on to spread his teaching after his death.

      Peter Matthew

      Andrew Thomas

      James James, son of Alphaeus

      John Thaddeus

      Philip Simon

      Bartholomew Judas

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FLU9RP5khyQ&feature=related


Festivals celebrations
Festivals/Celebrations

  • Advent: The beginning of the Christian Year. Four Sundays before Christmas, Christians set aside time for reflection and preparation for recalling the coming of Christ.

  • Christmas (December 25): The celebration of Jesus’ birth


Festivals celebrations ii
Festivals/Celebrations II

  • Easter: The holiest period of the Christian calendar. It begins with Good Friday, which solemnly commemorates Jesus’ crucifixion, and continues until Easter Sunday which celebrates the resurrection of Jesus.


Holy cities
Holy Cities

  • Jerusalem: Where the early church was started.

  • Bethlehem: Birth place of Jesus

  • Nazareth: Where Jesus lived and began ministry.

  • The Vatican: Home to the pope





Islam
Islam

  • Islam has several translated meanings including “peace and submission”

  • Allah = God

  • Muslims believe that the God mentioned in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are the same

  • Originated in the Arabian Peninsula

  • Monotheistic


Origins of islam
Origins of Islam

  • Prophet Muhammad 570-632 CE

  • Approx. 610 CE the angel Gabriel orders Muhammad to speak to his people and deliver to them the word of God.

    • The Arabian Peninsula was still heavily polytheistic at the time.

  • Muhammad won few converts initially.


Islam1
Islam

  • The Koran or Qu’ran is believed to be the literal word of God that was presented to Muhammad through several conversations with Gabriel.

  • Muhammad dictated these conversations to his friends who wrote them down.

  • Koran = recitation

  • Koran is divided into 114 suras (chapters)


1 st sura of the koran
1st sura of the Koran


Beliefs2
Beliefs

  • 5 Pillars

  • Belief in a Final Judgment led by the Islamic savior known as “al-Mahdi” who will restore the Kingdom of God

  • Belief in an afterlife

  • Believe Moses and Jesus to be important prophets

  • Muhammad final and greatest prophet


1 shahada
1) Shahada:

  • The declaration, “I testify that there is none worthy of worship except God and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of God.”


2 salat prayer
2) Salat: Prayer

  • General Features of Islamic Prayer

  • Five prayer times each day:

  • early morning

  • noon

  • mid-afternoon

  • sunset

  • evening


Salat con t
Salat Con’t

  • Adhan = Islamic call to prayer led by a muezzin

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aLFYMkQPakE&feature=related


3 zakat giving charity
3) Zakat: Giving charity

  • Originally a free-will donation

  • Now largely compulsory

  • General rate: 2 1/2% of income annually.

  • Given only to needy Muslims, or for religious purposes, etc.


4 sawm fast
4) Sawm: Fast

  • In memory of the revelation of the Koran

  • During month of Ramadan, daylight hours.

  • Ramadan in 2009 will start on Friday, the 21st of August and will continue for 30 days until Saturday, the 19th of September.

  • Those who have medical exemptions etc. should fast at another time.


5 hajj pilgrimage
5) Hajj: Pilgrimage

  • Every Muslim man and woman (if physically and economically able) should try to make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their life-time.


Statistical breakdown
Statistical breakdown

  • Sunni: 90% of all Muslims

  • Shiite/Shi’a: 10% of all Muslims

  • 1.55 billion Muslims in the world.

  • 30 to 40 countries are Muslim majority

  • 20% of Muslims are Arab



The sunni shiite split it s all about family
The Sunni-Shiite Split-It’s All About Family-

Muhammad and Khadija are credited with having several daughters, although the

parentage of them is questioned by scholars; they may have been adopted by Muhammad

rather than sired by him. Uthman (the 3rd Caliph) was married to one of these daughters,

Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad. However, historically these daughters have

been marginalized, most likely because they did not bear any surviving children or survive

their father. For the purposes of this presentation, all family relations have been simplified,

thus we can state that Fatima was the only surviving daughter of Muhammad.

Khadija

First Wife

Prophet

Muhammad

Fatima


The sunni shia split it s all about family
The Sunni-Shia Split-It’s All About Family-

Abu Bakr

Friend and Early Convert

Abu Talib

Muhammad’s Uncle

Prophet Muhammad

Khadija

(First Wife)

Aisha

Ali

Muhammad’s Cousin

Fatima


The sunni shia split it s all about family1
The Sunni-Shia Split-It’s All About Family-

Fatima

Ali

1st Imam

Hassan

2nd Imam

Hussein

3rd Imam

Zaynab

Umm Al-Kaltum

Ali Zain Al-Abideen

4th Imam

All Other Imams

Descend from this

Line.


Muhammad s succession
Muhammad’s Succession

  • 632- Muhammad dies, leaving no confirmed successor

  • Disagreement among clans on who will lead the faith- bloodline or the one most capable

  • The Ummah (the Islamic community) elects Muhammad’s father-in-law Abu Bakr to lead the faith. He becomes the first Caliph - the leader of the Ummah.


The rashidun 632 661 the rule of the four righted guided caliphs
The Rashidun (632-661)The Rule of the Four Righted Guided Caliphs


Holy places
Holy Places

  • Mecca: Muhammad’s birthplace

  • Medina: Where Muhammad spent his time while in exile.

  • Jerusalem: Dome of the Rock, place where Abraham is believe to have attempted human sacrifice of his son and where Muhammad ascended into heaven to receive commandments from God.



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