Emotional well being among orphaned and vulnerable children in two communities in south africa
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Emotional well-being among orphaned and vulnerable children in two communities in South Africa. Simbayi L, Setswe G , Jooste S, Davids A & Tabane C ICP 2012 Conference 25 July 2012. Background (1).

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Emotional well being among orphaned and vulnerable children in two communities in south africa

Emotional well-being among orphaned and vulnerable children in two communities in South Africa

Simbayi L, Setswe G, Jooste S, Davids A & Tabane C

ICP 2012 Conference

25 July 2012


Background 1
Background (1) in two communities in South Africa

  • The HSRC and its partners were funded by the WK Kellogg Foundation (WKKF) to develop and implement a 5-year intervention project for OVC in SA, Botswana and Zimbabwe.

  • Nelson Mandela Children's Fund (NMCF) worked with CBOs to support implementation of OVC interventions in South Africa.

  • The aim of the project was to empower the communities in selected communities to develop best practice interventions for OVC.

  • This part of the project was to evaluate emotional well-being of OVC in two communities in South Africa


Research intervention sites
Research & Intervention sites in two communities in South Africa

  • The study was conducted in Kanana Township in North West province and Kopanong Municipality in the Free State province.

  • Kanana is a township near the town of Orkney in Dr Kenneth Kaunda District Municipality which had a population of 66,936 in 19,702 householdsin 2001 covering an area of 9.90 km2 .

  • Kopanong comprises 8 towns in southern FS: Reddersburg, Smithfield, Bethulie, Jagersfontein, Philippolis, Springfontein, Reddersburg, Fauresmith with a population less than 56,000 in 2001.

Kanana

Free State Province

Kopanong

Sources: Census 2001. http://census.adrianfrith.com/place/61909.

http://www.sa-venues.com/maps/north-west-regional.htm


Method
Method in two communities in South Africa

  • Study Design: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted at the two sites

  • Population: Parents/guardians of OVC and children aged 6-14 and 15-18 years at both sites

  • Sampling: a stratified sampling approach:

  • Parents/Guardians of OVC n = 1,036were stratified into:

    • Parents/Guardians of OVC aged 6-14

    • Parents/Guardians of OVC aged 15-18


Demographics parents guardians of ovc n 1036
Demographics: Parents/Guardians of in two communities in South AfricaOVC (n = 1036)

  • A substantial proportion (51.9%) of the children were taken into care because one or both of their parents had died.

  • Grandparents (20.8%), in particular maternal grandparents serving as caregivers for the OVC raised some concerns in terms of sustainability of care, and the heavy reliance of affected families on government pension grants (13.3%).


Demographics parents guardians of ovc
Demographics: Parents/Guardians of OVC in two communities in South Africa

  • A fifth (20.9%) of the parents/guardians had had no formal schooling.

  • Full or part-time employment was low (22.2%), as was self-employment (17.4%).

  • A third reported looking for work (34.3%), while a small percentage reported being too sick to work (5.3%).

  • The majority (96.6%) reported knowing about HIV/AIDS and cited poverty and HIV/AIDS as being the major reasons for orphanhood in the area.

  • Approximately half the number of guardians mentioned that they do talk to their children about sex (51.3%), HIV/AIDS (59%) and reproductive health (50.4%).


Needs of ovc n 1036
Needs of in two communities in South AfricaOVC (n = 1036)

  • The three most commonly cited needs of OVC were:

    • food (88.4%),

    • financial support (83.1%),

    • educational support (71.1%).

  • Only 21.4% identified socio-emotional support as a need for OVC.

  • Most guardians (97.3%) said that their own children reacted positively to the addition of this child to the household.


Demographics children aged 6 14 n 859
Demographics: Children aged 6-14 in two communities in South Africa(n = 859)

  • Nearly one third (30%) were orphans

    • 24% were paternal orphans

    • 17% maternal orphans, and

    • 3% double orphans.

  • One fifth (17%) did not know the whereabouts of their fathers

  • Few (1.3%) were heads of households.

  • 81.3% of the children were happy with their guardian.

  • The majority (92%) belonged to a faith group.


Emotional wellbeing children aged 6 14 n 859
Emotional wellbeing: Children aged 6-14 in two communities in South Africa(n = 859)

  • Only 16.4% of the respondents inherited the house they lived in before their parent/s died.

  • Only 11% of the respondents concerned were consulted in the distribution of family goods.

  • A sizable minority (42.1%) had special personal items such as photos and other things that belonged to their deceased parents.


Emotional wellbeing children aged 6 14
Emotional wellbeing: Children aged 6-14 in two communities in South Africa

  • A large group (43.5%) of the children reported that they often and sometimes had trouble sleeping.

  • On the other hand, the number of children feeling happy sometimes or often(91%), is encouraging for it suggests proper caring and love by the current caregivers.

  • Those older enough to envision the future wished for a good profession (30.7%) and education (17.3%).


Demographics children aged 15 18 n 496
Demographics: Children aged 15-18 in two communities in South Africa(n = 496)

  • Nearly one third (36%) were orphans

    • 36% were paternal orphans

    • 27% were maternal orphans

    • 8% double orphans

  • A quarter 25% did not know if their fathers were dead or alive

  • Nineteen (3.8%) were heads of households, 14 males and five females.

  • An overwhelming majority of children (95.4%) believed their parents/guardians should discuss their health condition to prepare them emotionally for their long illness and death.

  • 53.1% of orphans lived in the same house as they did prior to their parents death.


Emotional wellbeing children aged 15 18
Emotional wellbeing: Children aged 15-18 in two communities in South Africa

  • Many children (68.2%) were sad when they were separated from their siblings and other children known to them.

  • Just over a third (38.3%) of the OVC stated that they would like their guardians to give them more financial support or food or clothing.

  • Nonmaterial support (more emotional support and improved communication was mentioned by children (13.5%).


Emotional wellbeing children aged 15 181
Emotional wellbeing: Children aged 15-18 in two communities in South Africa

  • The overwhelming majority (90.7%) were very staunch members of their religious groups.

  • A quarter of orphans (24.8%) reported being still bothered by their parent(s) or guardian(s) death.

  • Over half of children (55%) sometimes/often felt like crying.

  • Some 9.2% reported sometimes/often felt like killing themselves, nearly one fifth (19.4%) of those felt like doing so in the 2 weeks prior to the interview.


Emotional wellbeing children aged 15 182
Emotional wellbeing: Children aged 15-18 in two communities in South Africa

  • A majority indicated that they were:

    • Unhappy at times (77%)

    • Very angry (73%)

    • Avoided places or things (65%)

    • Had scary dreams or nightmares (57%)

    • Had panic attacks (57%)

  • A majority (74.4%) of them felt hopeful about the future especially education.


Recommendations 1
Recommendations (1) in two communities in South Africa

  • Interventions should begin during the guardian’s illness. Prepare parents and guardians to deal with their illness, and include emotional and practical issues (writing a will and leaving instructions on their children’s future welfare).

  • Material supportis a second support tier as young children need the stability of a daily routine of physical containment and nurturance.

  • Legal supportfor children not to lose their inheritance and assets is critical.


Recommendations 2
Recommendations (2) in two communities in South Africa

  • Micro-financeprogrammes should target poor communities and OVC caregivers.

  • Home-based carersneed training in emotional and child development issues, the impact of a terminal illness on children’s psyche to assist households to cope with their situation.

  • Religious institutionshave an important role to play in the protection of children given high levels of religiosity.


Recommendations 3
Recommendations (3) in two communities in South Africa

  • Male role modelsshould be used in training, counseling, mentoring and related programs to make up for the glaring absent father gap in the lives of OVC.

  • NGOs, CBOs and FBOsare central partners to government initiatives to implement its programmes in communities and should be a key means of facilitating transfer of resources to local communities.


Acknowledgements in two communities in South Africa

  • WK Kellogg Foundation

  • Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC)

  • Nelson Mandela Children’s Fund (NMCF)

  • DiketsoEsengDipuo (DEDI) CBO in Kopanong

  • Child Welfare North West in Kanana and KOSH area

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