Africa
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Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa: south of Sahara desert Rainforests Mtns. Savannas (grasslands). Great Rift Valley 40 miles wide, 2,000 ft deep 2,000-3,000 miles long. Village Life. Matrilineal—trace ancestry through mother Husband’s family gives bride’s family iron tools, animals, & cloth

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Village life
Village Life

  • Matrilineal—trace ancestry through mother

  • Husband’s family gives bride’s family iron tools, animals, & cloth

  • Boys & girls at 12 take part in adulthood ceremonies


  • Africans- polytheists

    • Believe spirits of dead live among them

  • Adopted ideas from Arabs (Islam) & Europeans (Christianity)


Nubia
Nubia

  • 2000 BC: upper Nile River

  • Under Egyptian control

  • Gold, ivory, pyramids

  • 700s BC: Nubian pharaohs rule Egypt until Axum invaded Nubia


Axum 500 bc
Axum 500 BC

  • Traded w/ Rome

    • Ivory, gold, exotic animals

    • Christian kingdom along Red Sea

  • Muslim raids forced them to interior--Ethiopia


    • Ghana (300-1200 AD)

      • Located between salt & gold mines

      • Trans-Saharan trade (across the desert)

      • Salt=most important

      • Conquered by Muslims


    • Mali

      • Small state in Ghana

    • Sundiata Keita

      • 1200s took old lands of Ghana

      • Cleared land for farming=surpluses

      • Peanuts, rice, sorghum, yams, beans, onions, wheat



    • Songhai

      • Niger River

      • 1400s Sunni Ali—took over Timbuktu

        • Divided into provinces

        • Laws based on Islam

        • 1589-attacked by Moroccans (w/ firearms)


    Zimbabwe great house of stone
    Zimbabwe “Great House of Stone”

    • Between Zambezi & Limpopo Rivers

    • Large stone forts

    • 1400s-declined for unknown reasons



    The americas
    The Americas

    • Migrated from Asia 11,500 yrs. ago

      • Bering Strait


    Olmecs
    Olmecs

    • 1200 BC – 400 BC

    • “Rubber people”

    • 1st Mexicans to build pyramids

    • Jade carvings

    • Colossal heads

    • Ball game with rubber ball


    Mayas until 900 ad
    Mayas (until 900 AD)

    • Yucatan Peninsula

    • Trade- cacao bean used as $

    • Agriculture- farmers paid taxes in produce & time

    • Members of royal family inbreed

    • Nobles drank hot chocolate (drinking money)




    Aztecs
    Aztecs (considered beautiful)

    • Most glorious & goriest

    • Nomads until settled on island in Lake Texcoco– city Tenochtitlan (200,000 people)

    • Pyramid-temples

    • Chinampas- farming maize (corn), squash, beans, peppers

    • Human sacrifices

    • Warfare- way of capturing sacrifices


    • 1519- Spaniard (considered beautiful)Hernan Cortes

      • Have cannons & firearms

      • Cortes allied w/ tribes tired of Montezuma

      • 600 Spaniard w/ a few thousand allies conquered Aztecs


    Incas
    Incas (considered beautiful)

    • South America- Andes Mtns.

    • Terrace farming

    • Quipus- knots tied in rope for record keeping

    • Quechua- language

    • Potatoes



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