Mongol eurasia and its aftermath 1200 1500 chapter 12
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Mongol Eurasia and its Aftermath, 1200-1500 Chapter 12. The Rise of the Mongols, 1200-1260. Nomadism in Central and Inner Asia. Nomads depended on: Resulting in: Hierarchy system headed by a.. Tribute Marriage Religion Religious pluralism Economy Strive for self sufficiency but.

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Nomadism in central and inner asia
Nomadism in Central and Inner Asia

  • Nomads depended on:

    • Resulting in:

  • Hierarchy system headed by a..

  • Tribute

  • Marriage

  • Religion

    • Religious pluralism

  • Economy

    • Strive for self sufficiency but..


The mongol conquests 1215 1283
The Mongol Conquests, 1215-1283

  • Genghis Khan 1206-1234, and successors conquered all of ___ and were threatening the Song.

  • Unification (Great Khan in Mongolia)

    • Golden Horde

    • Jagadai, Central Asia

    • Il-Khans



  • Ability to conquer

    • Horsemanship

    • Weapons

    • Technique

    • Adaptation

    • Recruit

    • Reputation/intimidation

    • opportunists


Overland trade and the plague
Overland Trade and the Plague

  • Eurasia

    • What type of knowledge was exchanged between: Europe, Middle East, China, Iran, and Japan?

  • Diseases

    • Spread via trade routes from Southwest China to the ______.



Mongol rivalry
Mongol Rivalry

  • 1260s rivalry between the Il-Khan Mongol Empire and their Muslim subjects were tense.

    • Why?

  • At the same time Russia was under the Golden Horde, led by Batu who converted to Islam. What were his intentions?



  • What role did Europe play in this conflict?

    • A failed alliance

      Islam and the State

  • Il-Khan State used the tax farming system.

    • Worked at first; However:

    • What attempts were made to fix this?

      • 1295-1349 depression

    • Noble Mongols fought each other for left over revenues

    • Golden Horde invaded

    • Timurids emerged in the Middle East


Culture and science in islamic eurasia
Culture and Science in Islamic Eurasia

  • Juvaini

  • Rashid al-Din, Jew who converted to Islam and advisor to Il-Khans, wrote…

    • What does this tell us about the Mongol world?


  • Astronomy

    • calendars, epicycles, prediction of eclipses

  • Mathematics

    • Adapted Indian numerical system

    • More accurate calculation of pi

    • Passed on to _______.



Russia and rule from afar
Russia and Rule from Afar

  • Golden Horde made their capital at the mouth of Volga, ruling Russia from afar

    • Goal:

  • The Mongols favored Novgorod and Moscow. Why?

    • These cities emerged as center of Russian civilization.


  • Historic controversy

    • Some historians believe in the “Mongol yoke”

    • Some believe that Kievan state was already declining before Mongol rule due to:

  • Ivan III, the prince of Moscow, ended Mongol rule in 1480 and adopted the title of “ “.


New states in eastern europe and anatolia
New States in Eastern Europe and Anatolia

  • How did the forces of the Mongols take over Eastern Europe?

    • International force

    • Vienna

    • Withdrew

  • Diplomatic trade

  • “I’m losing my religion”


  • Rise of Lithuania (and Balkan kingdoms)

    • Due to

  • Antolia to Constantinople

    • Islamic culture

  • Ottomans, in eastern Anatolia in the 1300s were kept in check by the Timurids, expanded eastward in the 1400s and conquered Constantinople in 1453.



The yuan empire 1279 1368
The Yuan Empire, 1279-1368

  • Khubilia Khan practiced Chinese tradition and government.

    • Fragmented: Song, Tanggut, and Jin were unified.

  • Beijing

  • Lamas

  • Government innovations

    • Tax farming

    • W. Asian officials

    • Hierarchy

    • Decline in Confucianism

    • Merchants and doctors elevated


  • Urban prosperity

    • Trade and merchants flourished

    • Corporations

    • Literature

    • Gentry

    • Mandarin dialect developed

  • Rural decline. Why?

  • Population decline. Why?


Cultural and scientific exchange
Cultural and Scientific Exchange

  • Exchange of technological, and mathematical knowledge was common between Iran (______) and China (_____). They both enjoyed good relations and had similar policies and sponsored intellectual pursuits.

    • Yuan imported:

    • Il-khans imported:


The fall of the yuan empire
The Fall of the Yuan Empire

  • Problems:

  • Zhu Yuanzhang (Chinese) brought an end to years of chaos and rebellions.

    • Ming dynasty

      • Rivals: Mongols, Jurchens (Jins),



Ming china on a mongol foundation
Ming China on a Mongol Foundation

  • Goals of Zhu Yuanzhang/Hongwu:

    • close trade with C. Asia and Middle East

    • Reassert _______

    • Nanjing

  • Continuation of (Yuan):

    • Provincial

    • Hereditary professional categories

    • Mongol calendar



Technology and population
Technology and Population

  • Slowdown in technological innovation.

    • Why?

    • _____ and _____ moved ahead of China in technological innovation.

      • Korea- firearms, shipping, meteorology, calendars

      • Japan- mining, metallurgy, and household goods


The ming achievement
The Ming Achievement

  • The Ming was a period of great wealth, consumerism, cultural brilliance, literature, and luxury goods.



Korea from the mongols to the yi 1231 1500
Korea from the Mongols to the Yi, 1231-1500

  • Korea concedes in 1258

    • King of Koryo merges family

    • Profited from technology (Yuan)

  • Collapsed after the Yuan fell, replaced by Yi dynasty (after Ming).

    • Continuation of Ming


  • Technology

    • Moveable type, meteorological science, calendar, fertilizer reservoirs, cotton

    • Military

      • Patrol ships, cannons, arrow launchers, armored ships


Political transformation in japan 1274 1500
Political Transformation in Japan 1274-1500

  • First invasion 1272 against the decentralized Kamakura

    • Result:

  • Second invasion 1281..

    • Result:


  • Kamakura shogunate destroyed by..

  • Ashikaga period 1338

    • Relatively weak, schools, increased agriculture, and artistic creativity

  • Onin war 1477

    • Local rivalry

    • More decentralized


The emergence of vietnam 1200 1500
The Emergence of Vietnam, 1200-1500

  • Divided

    • Chinese-influenced Annam in the north

    • Indian-influenced Champa in the south

    • (tribute from both)

    • After fall of Yuan, the two Vietnams resumed war with each other

  • Ming rule

    • Ruled Annam early 15th until 1428.

    • By 1500, Annam completely defeated Champa and established a _________ style government over all of Vietnam.


Conclusion
Conclusion

  • In every case, the threat or reality of Mongol invasion led to:

  • How did they deal with cultural, ethnic diversity?

  • How was trade effected?


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