Staar reporting category 2 force motion energy
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STAAR Reporting Category 2 Force, Motion, & Energy. Middle School Science Science STAAR Need to Know. Energy. The ability to do work or to cause change. Chemical Energy – Energy transformations.

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STAAR Reporting Category 2 Force, Motion, & Energy

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Staar reporting category 2 force motion energy

STAAR Reporting Category 2Force, Motion, & Energy

Middle School Science

Science STAAR Need to Know

Science STAAR Need to Know


Energy

Energy

The ability to do work or to cause change

Science STAAR Need to Know


Chemical energy energy transformations

Chemical Energy – Energy transformations

Chemical energy – when light energy from the sun is converted to the energy in the bonds of the sugar molecules formed in photosynthesis.

Science STAAR Need to Know


Chemical energy

Chemical Energy

Examples of chemical energy changing into heat energy:

Lighting a match

Burning a wood fire

Science STAAR Need to Know


Staar reporting category 2 force motion energy

Science STAAR Need to Know


Electrical energy energy transformations

Electrical energy- Energy transformations

Electrical energy- flow of electrons (a current)

  • Other ways of generating electricity:

  • Water flowing through a dam in a river to move turbines

  • Wind generators that use the energy of moving wind & operate a generator

  • Nuclear power plants convert atomic energy into heat. Heat boils water to form steam & then follows the same energy transformations as coal power plants666

Science STAAR Need to Know


Many energy transformations

Many energy transformations…

Electrical to mechanical:

Electricity used to spin the CD (Spinning CD has mechanical energy due to its position or motion)

Electrical to sound:

A laser converts the digital information on the CD into electrical energy and this energy goes to the headphones as a vibration- this transmits Sound!

Chemical to electrical:

Batteries store chemical compounds that react when they are used to power something. This produces a flow of electrons which is electricity!!

Science STAAR Need to Know


Sound energy energy transformations

Sound energy- Energy transformations

Sound – consists of mechanicalenergy waves created by vibrations.

Sound must travel through something (called “medium” or “media”) such as air, water, or a solid.

The medium carries the energy of the wave from one place to another.

Example: Air transmits the energy of the vibrating material in the headphones to your eardrums.

A vacuum is a space that contains little or no matter. Sound can’t travel through a vacuum since there are no particles to squeeze together (compression) or spread apart (rarefaction)

Science STAAR Need to Know


Staar reporting category 2 force motion energy

Light waves do not need a medium to transmit energy! They can even travel through empty space.

Light Waves

Science STAAR Need to Know


Staar reporting category 2 force motion energy

Water waves are a form of a wave that transmits mechanical energy across the surface of water.

Water waves

A wave is a disturbance that transfers energy from one place to another.

Science STAAR Need to Know


Staar reporting category 2 force motion energy

Seismic waves

Seismic waves are caused by earthquakes that transmit mechanical energy through the Earth’s layers.

San Andreas Fault

Science STAAR Need to Know


Potential pe

Potential (PE)

Potential Energy

Stored energy

Science STAAR Need to Know


Kinetic energy ke

Kinetic Energy (KE)

Energy due to motion of an object

Did you know that the gas burned in a car engine is chemical energy being turned into Kinetic Energy?

Kinetic energy

Rubber band flying through the air has kinetic energy

Speed & mass affect kinetic energy–

Faster/heavier…more Kinetic Energy

Science STAAR Need to Know


Staar reporting category 2 force motion energy

Before the yo-yo begins its fall it has stored energy due to its position. At the top it has its maximum potential energy. As it starts to fall the potential energy begins to be changed into kinetic energy. At the bottom its potential energy has been converted into kinetic energy so that it now has its maximum kinetic energy

A waterfall has both potential and kinetic energy. The water at the top of Bridal Veil Falls has stored potential energy. When the water begins to fall, its potential energy is changed into kinetic energy.

This change in energy also happens at Niagara Falls where it is used to provide electricity from the transformation of mechanical and electromagnetic energy.

Science STAAR Need to Know


Staar reporting category 2 force motion energy

Science STAAR Need to Know


Energy transformations

Potential energy

A rock sitting at the top of a cliff

Roller coaster car at the top peak of a hill

A swimmer posed to dive off the end of a diving board

NO MOTION !!

Kinetic energy

A bouncing ball

A moving roller coaster

A track star running

A girl skiing

MOTION is the key!!!!

Energy Transformations

Science STAAR Need to Know


Staar reporting category 2 force motion energy

Force

pushing or pulling

action that may

change motion

Forces may transfer energy between objects

Forces may MOVE objects

Science STAAR Need to Know


Staar reporting category 2 force motion energy

A book resting on a desk illustrates balanced forces. However, a book dropped from a desk illustrates unbalanced forces. In this case, gravity has overcome the balance of forces.

Science STAAR Need to Know


Gravity

GRAVITY

Science STAAR Need to Know


You use force to move your body

You use force to move your body

When you bend your arm, your muscles contract, which applies force to your arm bones. Your arm responds to this force by moving.

During breathing, muscles contract (use force) to move air in and out of the lungs.

The heart contracts (uses force) to pump blood through the blood vessels, carrying oxygen to the muscles.

Science STAAR Need to Know


All living things use force to move

All living things use force to move

Plants exert force to open flower petals, curl & uncurl leaves & push roots through the soil.

Emerging seedlings exert force on the surrounding soil.

This force pushes the stem of the plant out of the ground.

Force is used to move materials in & out of cells.

Fish exert force to swim by pushing against the water.

Science STAAR Need to Know


Staar reporting category 2 force motion energy

Balanced force

Unbalanced force

In order for a force to move something, it must be an unbalanced force. This means that a force is stronger in one direction than the forces in the opposite direction.

Science STAAR Need to Know


Staar reporting category 2 force motion energy

Let's look at some motion data

Acceleration of an object moving in one direction is the speed (m/s) per unit of time (s), or change in speed divided by time. The unit for acceleration is m/s2.

Science STAAR Need to Know


Staar reporting category 2 force motion energy

Science STAAR Need to Know


Data can be displayed interpreted in many ways

Data can be displayed & interpreted in many ways

Science STAAR Need to Know


Acceleration

ACCELERATION

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Force motion are related

Force-

measured in

newtons ( N )

Force & motion are related

Science STAAR Need to Know


Newton s 1 st law of motion

NEWTON’S 1ST LAW OF MOTION

Science STAAR Need to Know


Newton s 2 nd law of motion

NEWTON’S 2ND LAW OF MOTION

Science STAAR Need to Know


Newton s 3 rd law of motion

NEWTON’S 3RD LAW OF MOTION

Science STAAR Need to Know


Staar reporting category 2 force motion energy

Science STAAR Need to Know


Staar reporting category 2 force motion energy

A lever is a bar that rests on a support called a fulcrum which lifts or moves loads. 

Science STAAR Need to Know


Types of levers

Types of levers

Science STAAR Need to Know


Staar reporting category 2 force motion energy

This pulley has 1 wheel, so it changes the direction of pull 1 time. The input force is the same as the weight using the pulley.

A pulley is a simple machine that uses grooved wheels and a rope to raise, lower or move a load. When a rope passes over a wheel, it changes the direction of effort (pull) needed to move the load.

Science STAAR Need to Know


Wedge

Wedge

A wedge is an object with at least one slanting side ending in a sharp edge, which cuts material apart.

Science STAAR Need to Know


Staar reporting category 2 force motion energy

An inclined plane is a ramp used to reduce the effort needed to raise or lower an object over a vertical height.

It is easier to climb stairs to get to a second floor than to climb straight up a rope. It is easier to walk up a long, gentle hill than to climb up a short, steep hill.

Examples of inclined planes:

Loading ramp; Stairs or wheelchair ramp

Mountain road; Threaded screw.

The ancient Egyptians used inclined planes, or ramps, to move huge blocks of stone to build the pyramids.

Science STAAR Need to Know


Staar reporting category 2 force motion energy

A screw is an inclined plane wrapped around a pole

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Wheel axle

A wheel with a rod, called an axle, through its center lifts or moves loads.

Wheel & axle

Science STAAR Need to Know


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