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High Performance Power Plants PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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High Performance Power Plants. Complex Airplanes. Complex Airplanes. Retractable landing gear Flaps Controllable pitch propeller. High Performance Airplane. High Performance Airplane. Engine of over 200 Horsepower. Manifold. What is a manifold?. Manifold. What is a manifold?

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High Performance Power Plants

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High performance power plants l.jpg

High Performance Power Plants


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Complex Airplanes


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Complex Airplanes

  • Retractable landing gear

  • Flaps

  • Controllable pitch propeller


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High Performance Airplane


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High Performance Airplane

  • Engine of over 200 Horsepower


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Manifold

  • What is a manifold?


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Manifold

  • What is a manifold?

  • A pipe with many lateral outlets to connect one with others

  • Airplanes often have an intake manifold and and exhaust manifold


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Manifold Pressure

  • A measure of the pressurized air in the intake manifold measured in inches of mercury

  • With the engine off, what does the manifold pressure normally register at sea level

  • At 5,000 feet?


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Fuel Injection Systems

  • Carburetor Heat

  • Auxiliary Fuel Pump

  • Fuel Flow Indicator

  • Vapor Lock


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Engine Monitoring

  • Exhaust Gas Temperature Gauge (EGT)

  • Best Economy Mixture

  • Best Power Mixture

  • Cylinder-Head Temperature Gauge (CHT)


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Abnormal Combustion

  • Detonation

  • Preignition


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Induction Icing

  • Impact Ice

  • Induction System Icing

  • Alternate Air Source


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Turbocharging Systems

  • Manifold Pressure Gauge

  • Absolute Ceiling

  • Service Ceiling

  • Critical Altitude


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Supercharging

  • The compressor is driven by the crankshaft through an intricate gearing system, which takes considerable horsepower from the engine to operate


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Constant-Speed Propellers

  • Blade Angle

  • Pitch Angle

  • Geometric Pitch Angle

  • Effective Pitch Angle


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Constant-Speed Propellers

  • Propeller Blade Slip

  • Governing Range

  • Propeller Control


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Constant-Speed Propellers

  • Feathering Propellers Vs Nonfeathering

  • Multiengine airplanes

  • Reduce drag

  • Prevent further engine damage


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  • What is the largest reciprocating engine to be successfully used in an airplane?


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  • What is the largest reciprocating engine to be successfully used in an airplane?

  • R4360

  • Eight of them used on the Spruce Goose.


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  • What was the diameter of the propellers used on the Spruce Goose?


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  • What was the diameter of the propellers used on the Spruce Goose?

  • 17 feet 2 inches


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  • What is propeller efficiency?


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  • What is propeller efficiency?

  • Ratio of thrust horsepower to brake horsepower


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  • What is a Q-tipped propeller?


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  • What is a Q-tipped propeller?

  • A Hartzell propeller with the tip of each blade bent back 90 degrees. It normally replaces a propeller of larger diameter.


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  • What are the advantages of a Q-tipped propeller?


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  • What are the advantages of a Q-tipped propeller?

  • Reduce cabin noise

  • Increased Blade-to-ground clearance

  • Less erosion and other damage caused by ground debris.


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  • If you feather a propeller and then make a wheels-up landing, what direction will the propeller bend?


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  • If you feather a propeller and then make a wheels-up landing, what direction will the propeller bend?

  • backward


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  • If you strike a propeller while you are in powered flight, which direction will it bend?


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  • If you strike a propeller while you are in powered flight, which direction will it bend?

  • forward


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  • What material was used to make propellers on early aircraft?

  • Why?


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  • What material was used to make propellers on early aircraft?

  • Why?

  • Wood

  • It is light, strong, flexible and can be easily worked.


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  • After wood, what was the next popular material for making propellers?


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  • After wood, what was the next popular material for making propellers?

  • Metal


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  • Does a propeller have the same geometric pitch throughout its length?

  • Why?


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  • No

  • Tip of blade is moving faster than the hub. Tip would stall


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Noise Abatement

  • Some airports have specific routes you have to fly to try to avoid populated areas

  • Ground noise levels can often be reduced by reducing power


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  • If you have a turbocharging system with manual controls, how might you encounter an overboost annunciator segment light?


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  • Descending from a high altitude

  • Applying takeoff power to a cold engine.


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  • What is the maximum glide configuration in a Bonanza?

  • Landing Gear?


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  • What is the maximum glide configuration in a Bonanza?

  • Landing Gear - Up

  • Flaps?


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  • What is the maximum glide configuration in a Bonanza?

  • Landing Gear - Up

  • Flaps - Up

  • Cowl Flaps?


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  • What is the maximum glide configuration in a Bonanza?

  • Landing Gear - Up

  • Flaps - Up

  • Cowl Flaps - Closed

  • Propeller?


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  • What is the maximum glide configuration in a Bonanza?

  • Cowl Flaps - Closed

  • Propeller - Pull for low RPM

  • Airspeed?


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  • What is the maximum glide configuration in a Bonanza?

  • Propeller - Pull for low RPM

  • Airspeed - 105 KTS


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  • What is the emergency descent configuration of the Bonanza?

  • Power?


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  • What is the emergency descent configuration of the Bonanza?

  • Power - Idle

  • Propeller?


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  • What is the emergency descent configuration of the Bonanza?

  • Power - Idle

  • Propeller - High RPM

  • Landing Gear?


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  • What is the emergency descent configuration of the Bonanza?

  • Power - Idle

  • Propeller - High RPM

  • Landing Gear - Down

  • Airspeed?


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  • What is the emergency descent configuration of the Bonanza?

  • Power - Idle

  • Propeller - High RPM

  • Landing Gear - Down

  • Airspeed - 154 KTS


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What effect, if any, would a change in ambient temperature or air density have on gas turbine engine performance?


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A. As temperature increases, thrust decreases.

B. As air density decreases, thrust increases.

C. As temperature increases, thrust increases.


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What effect, if any, would a change in ambient temperature or air density have on gas turbine engine performance?

A. As temperature increases, thrust decreases.

.


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Applying carburetor heat will

A. enrich the fuel/air mixture.

B. lean the fuel/air mixture.

C. not affect the mixture.


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Applying carburetor heat will

A. enrich the fuel/air mixture.


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Detonation occurs in a reciprocating aircraft engine when


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A. the spark plugs receive an electrical jolt caused by a short in the wiring.

B. there is an explosive increase of fuel caused by too rich a fuel/air mixture.

C. the unburned charge in the cylinders is subjected to instantaneous combustion.


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Detonation occurs in a reciprocating aircraft engine when

C. the unburned charge in the cylinders is subjected to instantaneous combustion.


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The uncontrolled firing of the fuel/air charge in advance of normal spark ignition is known as

A. instantaneous combustion.

B. detonation.

C. pre-ignition.


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The uncontrolled firing of the fuel/air charge in advance of normal spark ignition is known as

C. pre-ignition.


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Before shutdown, while at idle, the ignition key is momentarily turned OFF. The engine continues to run with no interruption; this


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A. is normal because the engine is usually stopped by moving the mixture to idle cut-off.

B. is an undesirable practice, but indicates that nothing is wrong.

C. should not normally happen. Indicates a magneto not grounding in OFF position.


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Before shutdown, while at idle, the ignition key is momentarily turned OFF. The engine continues to run with no interruption; this

C. should not normally happen. Indicates a magneto not grounding in OFF position.


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A detuning of engine crankshaft counterweights is a source of overstress that may be caused by


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A. rapid opening and closing of the throttle.

B. operating with an excessively rich fuel/air mixture.

C. carburetor ice forming on the throttle valve.


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A detuning of engine crankshaft counterweights is a source of overstress that may be caused by

A. rapid opening and closing of the throttle.


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If the ground wire between the magneto and the ignition switch becomes disconnected, the engine


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A. will not operate on one magneto.

B. cannot be started with the switch in the BOTH position.

C. could accidentally start if the propeller is moved with fuel in the cylinder.


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If the ground wire between the magneto and the ignition switch becomes disconnected, the engine

C. could accidentally start if the propeller is moved with fuel in the cylinder.


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For internal cooling, reciprocating aircraft engines are especially dependent on


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A. a properly functioning cowl flap augmenter.

B. the proper freon/compressor output ratio.

C. the circulation of lubricating oil.


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For internal cooling, reciprocating aircraft engines are especially dependent on

C. the circulation of lubricating oil.


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Frequent inspections should be made of aircraft exhaust manifold-type heating systems to minimize the possibility of


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A. a cold-running engine due to the heat withdrawn by the heater.

B. exhaust gases leaking into the cockpit.

C. a power loss due to back pressure in the exhaust system.


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Frequent inspections should be made of aircraft exhaust manifold-type heating systems to minimize the possibility of

B. exhaust gases leaking into the cockpit.


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Propeller efficiency is the

A. ratio of thrust horsepower to brake horsepower.

B. actual distance a propeller advances in one revolution.

C. ratio of geometric pitch to effective pitch.


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Propeller efficiency is the

A. ratio of thrust horsepower to brake horsepower.


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The reason for variations in geometric pitch (twisting) along a propeller blade is that it


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A. prevents the portion of the blade near the hub from stalling during cruising flight.

B. permits a relatively constant angle of attack along its length when in cruising flight.

C. permits a relatively constant angle of incidence along its length when in cruising flight.


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The reason for variations in geometric pitch (twisting) along a propeller blade is that it

B. permits a relatively constant angle of attack along its length when in cruising flight.


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Which statement best describes the operating principle of a constant-speed propeller?


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A. As throttle setting is changed by the pilot, the prop governor causes pitch angle of the propeller blades to remain unchanged.

B. A high blade angle, or increased pitch, reduces the propeller drag and allows more engine power for takeoffs.

C. The propeller control regulates the engine RPM and in turn the propeller RPM.


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Which statement best describes the operating principle of a constant-speed propeller?

C. The propeller control regulates the engine RPM and in turn the propeller RPM.


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In aircraft equipped with constant-speed propellers and normally-aspirated engines, which procedure should be used to avoid placing undue stress on the engine components? When power is being


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A. decreased, reduce the RPM before reducing the manifold pressure.

B. increased or decreased, the RPM should be adjusted before the manifold pressure.

C. increased, increase the RPM before increasing the manifold pressure.


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In aircraft equipped with constant-speed propellers and normally-aspirated engines, which procedure should be used to avoid placing undue stress on the engine components? When power is being

C. increased, increase the RPM before increasing the manifold pressure.


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For takeoff, the blade angle of a controllable-pitch propeller should be set at a

A. large angle of attack and high RPM.

B. small angle of attack and high RPM.

C. large angle of attack and low RPM.


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For takeoff, the blade angle of a controllable-pitch propeller should be set at a

B. small angle of attack and high RPM.


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To establish a climb after takeoff in an aircraft equipped with a constant-speed propeller, the output of the engine is reduced to climb power by decreasing manifold pressure and


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A. decreasing RPM by increasing propeller blade angle.

B. increasing RPM by decreasing propeller blade angle.

C. decreasing RPM by decreasing propeller blade angle.


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To establish a climb after takeoff in an aircraft equipped with a constant-speed propeller, the output of the engine is reduced to climb power by decreasing manifold pressure and

A. decreasing RPM by increasing propeller blade angle.


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