Asian Values: Disputes. Critics (West) AVs are used to justify the power of authoritarian governments, to resist democracy and violate human rights. Supporters of AV Avs are incompatible with human rights & democracy-which originate in the West b/c:
PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Asian Values: Disputes' - erek
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The Declaration accepted that rights were universal but added the qualification that “they must be considered ‘in the context of’ national and regional particularities, and various cultural, historical, and religious backgrounds, and with the understanding that norms and values change over time” (Mauzy, 221).
This Declaration (adopted by more than 40 Asian countries) enabled the Asian nations to argue for their case with respect to human rights—
A22. economic, social and culturalrights needed for one’s dignity and the free development of one’s personality
A25. the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control
Fukuyama is less skeptical about the value of liberalization & democracy for the Asians than Mauzy
Even though both seem to agree that democracy is not incompatible with Asian/Confucian values, they agree that democracy must wait for a certain degree of social and economic development before implementation
Whereas Mauzy thinks that the Western emphasis on the first generation human rights and individual freedom contributes to social decay that is contrary to the cohesiveness of the family and the society,
Fukuyama thinks that the very cohesiveness of the Chinese family is antithetical to being cohesive as a community
Ironically, this lack of cohesiveness as a community in the Chinese is actually a resource for making them friendlier to Western rights and democracy
Fukuyama thinks that the ‘modernization hypothesis’ applies to Asia, namely that “rising per-capita incomes and educational levels in the region will be accompanied by an increasing democratization of political systems. . . . because there is a universal tendency of human beings to seek recognition of their dignity through a political system that allows them to participate as adult human beings.” (Fukuyama, 32).
Contrary to most commentators who assert a continuity between the Confucian individual and the state, Fukuyama thinks that Chinese familism makes them individualistic—he likens them to a tray of sand rather than a block of granite
This quality of weak ties between unrelated Chinese people leads Fukuyama to think that they’ll move toward political liberalization and democracy the wealthier and more educated they become
Whereas Fukuyama thinks that Confucianism is compatible with political liberalization—which he denies is a Western value—for he asserts that political liberalization is a universal tendency of the well-educated middle class,
Mauzy is more skeptical of the compatibility between AVs and liberal values which she associates with the social decay in the West
The philosopher You said, "They are few who, being filial (xiao孝) and fraternal (di弟), are fond of offending against their superiors and fond of stirring up confusion. The superior man does his utmost for what is the basis. That being established, the Way (dao道) grows. Filial piety and fraternal submission are the root of all humane (ren仁) actions.“ (1.2)
That virtues in the home are extended to the society is exemplified by:
The Master said, "A youth, when at home, should be filial (xiao孝), and, abroad, respectful to his elders (di弟). He should be prudent and truthful (xin信). He should overflow in love to all, and be intimate with the humane (ren仁) . When he has time and energy, after the performance of these things, he should study the arts (wen文).“ (1.6)
Fukuyama’s claim about the discontinuity between the family and the community seem questionable in light of these analects
The Master said, "If the people be led by laws, and boundaries sought by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame. If they be led by virtue, and boundaries sought to be given them by the rules of propriety (li禮), they will have the sense of shame, and moreover will order themselves.“—in contrast
The Master said, "The superior man thinks of virtue; the small man thinks of comfort. The superior man thinks of the sanctions of law; the small man thinks of favors which he may receive." (4.11 see 13.3 where he advocates the use of laws) . . .
Confucius’ preference is exemplary rule rather than legal sanctions
The Master said, "When a prince's personal conduct is correct, his government is effective without the issuing of orders. If his personal conduct is not correct, he may issue orders, but they will not be followed.“ (13.6)
The relation between superiors and inferiors is like that between the wind and the grass. The grass must bend, when the wind blows across it. (12.19)
But Confucius believes that the people are not passive; they ought to be educated
When the Master went to Wei, Zan You acted as driver of his carriage. The Master observed, "How numerous are the people!" You said, "Since they are thus numerous, what more shall be done for them?" "Enrich them," was the reply. "And when they have been enriched, what more shall be done?" The Master said, "Teach them.“ (13.9)
As such, he believes that they have a role in government
That the people’s opinions are significant for the legitimacy of a government can be seen in 12.7:
Zi Gong asked about government. The Master said, "The requisites of government are that there be sufficient of food, sufficient arms for defense, and the confidence of the people in their ruler." Zi Gong said, "If it cannot be helped, and one of these must be dispensed with, which of the three should be foregone first?" "The arms," said the Master. Zi Gong again asked, "If it cannot be helped, and one of the remaining two must be dispensed with, which of them should be foregone?" The Master answered, "Part with the food. From of old, death has been the lot of men; but if the people have no faith in their rulers, there is no standing for the state."
That there’s even room for more first gen rights like freedom of thought and speech:
The Master said, "In serving his parents, a son may remonstrate with them; when he sees that they do not incline to follow his advice, he should remain respectful and not disobey them or be resentful.” (4.18)
The Master said, "When one is in pursuit of humaneness (ren) he may not yield even to his teacher.” (15.36)
The Master said, “A man can enlarge the principles (dao道) which he follows; those principles do not enlarge the man.” (15.29)