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Valence Bond Theory. How do bonds form?. The valence bond model or atomic orbital model was developed by Linus Pauling in order to explain how atoms come together and form molecules.

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How do bonds form?

  • The valence bond model or atomic orbital model was developed by Linus Pauling in order to explain how atoms come together and form molecules.

  • The model theorizes that a covalent bond forms when two orbitals overlap to produce a new combined orbital containing two electrons of opposite spin.

  • This overlapping results in a decrease in the energy of the atoms forming the bond.

  • The shared electron pair is most likely to be found in the space between the two nuclei of the atoms forming the bonds.


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Example H2

  • The newly combined orbital will contain an electron pair with opposite spin just like a filled atomic orbital.


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Example HF

  • In hydrogen fluoride the 1s orbital of the H will overlap with the half-filled 2p orbital of the F forming a covalent bond.


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Other Points on the Valence Bond Theory

  • This theory can also be applied to molecules with more than two atoms such as water.

  • Each covalent bond results in a new combined orbital with two oppositely spinning electrons.

  • In order for atoms to bond according to the valence bond model, the orbitals must have an unpaired electron.


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Covalent Bonding: Orbitals

Hybridization

  • The mixing of atomic orbitals to form special orbitals for bonding.

  • The atoms are responding as needed to give the minimum energyfor the molecule.


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sp3 Hybridization

The experimentally known structure of CH4 molecule can be explained if we assume that the carbon atom adopts a special set of atomic orbitals. These new orbital are obtained by combining the 2s and the three 2p orbitals of the carbon atom to produce four identically shaped orbital that are oriented toward the corners of a tetrahedron and are used to bond to the hydrogen atoms.

Whenever a set of equivalent tetrahedral atomic orbitals is required by an atom, this model assumes that the atom adopts a set of sp3 orbitals; the atom becomes sp3 hybridized.




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Figure 9.3. The Formation of Four sp3 Hybrid Orbitals





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Figure 9.8. The Hybridization of the Four s, px, and py Atomic Orbitals


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  • A Four sigma () bondcenters along the internuclear axis.  end-to-end overlap of orbitals

  • A pi () bondoccupies the space above and below the internuclear axis.  side-to-side overlap of orbitals



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Figure 9.10. An Four sp2 Hybridized C Atom


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Figure 9.11. The Four s Bonds in Ethylene



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Figure 9.16. The Orbital Energy-Level Diagram for the Formation of sp Hybrid Orbitals on Carbon


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Figure 9.14. When One s Orbital and One Formation of p Orbital are Hybridized, a Set of Two sp Orbitals Oriented at 180

Degrees Results


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Figure 9.17. The Orbitals of an Formation of sp Hybridized Carbon Atom


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Figure 9.18. The Orbital Arrangement Formation of

for an sp2 Hybridized Oxygen Atom





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Figure 9.21. A Set of Formation of dsp3 Hybrid Orbitals on a Phosphorus Atom


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Figure 9.23. An Octahedral Set of Formation of d2sp3 Orbitals on a Sulfur Atom


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Figure 9.24. The Relationship of the Number of Effective Pairs, Their Spatial Arrangement, and the Hybrid Orbital Set Required


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Figure 9.46. A Benzene Ring Pairs, Their Spatial Arrangement, and the Hybrid Orbital Set Required


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Figure 9.47. The Sigma System for Benzene Pairs, Their Spatial Arrangement, and the Hybrid Orbital Set Required


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Figure 9.48. The Pi System for Benzene Pairs, Their Spatial Arrangement, and the Hybrid Orbital Set Required


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The Localized Electron Model Pairs, Their Spatial Arrangement, and the Hybrid Orbital Set Required

Three Steps:

  • Draw the Lewis structure(s)

  • Determine the arrangement of electron pairs (VSEPR model).

  • Specify the necessary hybrid orbitals.


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Figure 9.45. The Resonance Structures for O Pairs, Their Spatial Arrangement, and the Hybrid Orbital Set Required3 and NO3-


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Paramagnetism Pairs, Their Spatial Arrangement, and the Hybrid Orbital Set Required

  • unpaired electrons

  • attracted to induced magnetic field

  • much stronger than diamagnetism


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