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The U.s. enters WWI PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Section 1. The U.s. enters WWI. Porfirio Diaz ruled Mexico from 1884-1911 Encouraged foreign investment to develop nation Majority of people were poor and landless and frustrated 1911 revolution erupted and forced Diaz to flee Francisco Madero took Diaz’s place

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The U.s. enters WWI

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Section 1

Section 1

The U.s. enters WWI


The mexican revolution

Porfirio Diaz ruled Mexico from 1884-1911

Encouraged foreign investment to develop nation

Majority of people were poor and landless and frustrated

1911 revolution erupted and forced Diaz to flee

Francisco Madero took Diaz’s place

Unskilled administrator & Mexico continued to decline

Army officers plotted against Madero

The Mexican revolution


The u s enters wwi

General Victoriano Huerta seized power in Mexico and Madero was murdered, probably on Huerta’s orders

Wilson upset by Huerta’s actions refused to recognize new gov’t

Felt without U.S. support the gov’t would soon be overthrown

Cont.


Mexican revolution

Mexican Revolution


Wilson sends troops to mexico

April 1914 American sailors were arrested in Tampico for entering a restricted area

Quickly released but Wilson demanded an apology

Mexicans refused and Wilson used refusal as an opportunity get rid of Huerta

Wilson sent marines to seize Mexican port of Veracruz

Wilson sends troops to Mexico


The u s enters wwi

Marines were not welcomed like Wilson thought they would be

Riots broke out

Venustiano Carranza became Mexico’s president

Mexicans who opposed Carranza weren’t happy so they conducted raids in the U.S. hoping to force Wilson to intervene

Cont.


The u s enters wwi

Pancho Villa- led a group of guerillas that burned Columbus, New Mexico killing Americans

Guerillas- armed band that uses surprise attacks and sabotage other than open warfare

Wilson responded by sending 6,000 troops led by General John J. Pershing to capture Villa

Pershing failed to capture guerillas; Wilson recalls Pershing’s troops with growing concern in Europe in 1917

Cont.


Pancho vs pershing

Pancho vs Pershing


The alliance system

Read this section

Understand how Germany became a nation

France and Germany enemies

Triple Alliance

The alliance system


The naval race

While major powers in Europe were dividing into alliances, Great Britain remained neutral

1898 Germans began building a navy challenging Great Britain’s navy

Naval race had begun which increased tensions with Germany and Great Britain causing Great Britain to establish closer relations with France and Russia

Refused a formal alliance so it became known as an “entente cordiale”- friendly understanding (Triple Entente)

The Naval race


A continent goes to war

Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to Austro-Hungarian throne, was assassinated as he rode through Sarajevo

GavriloPrincip was the shooter and he was a member of the “Black Hand” (Serbian Nationalist Group)

Serbian’s knew this was going to happen, they were looking to start war

A continent goes to war


The u s enters wwi

Austrians asked German allies for support before attacking Serbia because they feared an attack would trigger war with Russia

Germany agreed

Serbs counted on Russia to back them up, Russia counted on France to back them

July 28, 1914 Austria declared war on Serbia

Russia mobilizes an army

August 1 Germany declares war on Russia, 2 days later declared war on France

WWI had begun

Cont.


Germany s plan fails

Germany had been waiting for war for a long time

Launched massive invasion of France hoping to knock them out fast

With France out of the picture Germany could then focus on sending troops to Russia

Problem: Germany had to advance through neutral Belgium

German troops crossed the Belgian frontier and Britain declared war on Germany

Germany’s plan fails


The u s enters wwi

Germany’s plan worked at first

They blew through Belgium and drove French and British forces back

Then Russia invaded Germany catching Germany by surprise

Germany forced to pull troops from France and send them east

French troops stopped German advances at the Battle of the Marne

Cont.


Battle of marne

Battle of marne


The u s enters wwi

Both sides were locked in a bloody stalemate for 3 years in hundreds of miles of trenches

Cont.


Trenches

Trenches


The u s enters wwi

Allies- France, Russia, and Great Britain formed the backbone (Italy came in later)

Central Powers- Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria

Cont.


American neutrality

  • Wilson declares the U.S. neutral

  • Americans however, showed support for one side or the other

    • German immigrants supported Central Powers

    • American public favored Allies

      • Americans treasured history link with France, great friend during Revolutionary War

American neutrality


Pro british sentiment

Read this section

Propaganda

Pro-british sentiment


British blockade

British blockade Germany to keep it from obtaining supplies

Contraband- prohibited materials

Germans knew how much the Allies depended on the U.S. for supplies

To get around Britain’s blockade the Germans deployed submarines known as U-boats

U-boats would attempt to sink without warning any ship found around Britain

British blockade


British blockade picture

British blockade picture


German u boat

German u-boat


The u s enters wwi

Germany’s announcement triggered outrage

International treaty stated military vessels must reveal their intentions to merchant ships and make provisions for the safety of the targeted ship’s crew and passengers before sinking it

Germans disagreed saying it would give away there position

Cont.


Lusitania

  • May 7, 1915 German U-boat fired on the Lusitania sinking it

  • Killing 1200 passengers- 128 Americans

  • Americans were outraged

  • Wilson didn’t take extreme measures against Germany

    • Sent notes insisting Germany to stop firing on civilian ships

Lusitania


Sussex

  • Germany ignored Wilson’s request

  • March 1916 German U-boat fired on Sussex injuring many Americans

  • Wilson issued one last warning

    • Abandon submarine warfare or risk war with U.S.

  • Germany didn’t want to strengthen the Allies

  • Sussex Pledge- Germany would sink no more merchant ships; kept U.S. out of war a little longer

Sussex


Sussex picture

Sussex picture


U s declares war

Arthur Zimmerman, German official, cabled German ambassador in Mexico telling him to instruct Mexican gov’t to ally with Germany in an event of war b/w Germany and U.S.

Mexico would regain Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona after war (if Germany won)

Germany hoped this would occupy U.S. and keep them out of Europe

British intelligence intercepted this Zimmerman telegraph, shortly after it was leaked in American papers

U.S. declares war


The u s enters wwi

Feb. 1, 1917 Germany resumes submarine warfare

Didn’t believe U.S. could raise an Army fast enough

Germany sank 6 American merchants ship between Feb 3-March21

Wilson appears before a special session of Congress to ask for a declaration of war

Senate: 82-6 in favor (April 4, 1917)

House: 373-50 in favor (April 6, 1917)

America was now at war

Cont.


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