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Music 3228 Topics in Music History Manuel de Falla. Music of Spain Room 402, WF @ 12:30 p.m. Dr. Dena Kay Jones. Review. During the 19 th Century, not much musical activity other than ZARZUELA HOWEVER, other musicians (predominantly French) are capitalizing on the “Spanish Idiom:”

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music 3228 topics in music history manuel de falla

Music 3228Topics in Music HistoryManuel de Falla

Music of Spain

Room 402, WF @ 12:30 p.m.

Dr. Dena Kay Jones

  • During the 19th Century, not much musical activity other than ZARZUELA
  • HOWEVER, other musicians (predominantly French) are capitalizing on the “Spanish Idiom:”
    • Bizet’s Carmen (premiere March 3, 1875)
    • Chabrier’s España
    • Lalo’s Symphonie Espagnol
  • Lyrical Opera, Los Pirineos
  • Most important:

Philosophies on Spanish Nationalism

  • Collection of both Spanish Art Music AND folklore; Cancionero Popular Español, 1918-1922

Por Nuestra Musica, 1891

pedrell s nationalist philosophies
Pedrell’s nationalist philosophies:
  • 1) Using both cultivated and popular folklore music in current composition
  • 2) By using these melodies, harmonies, and rhythms, composers were simply carrying on an unbroken tradition of representing Spanish music
  • 3) The musical traditions were notable for their local differences (not only Andalucian)

Historical material would be included in current compositions

what is the spanish idiom
What is the “Spanish Idiom”
  • PREDOMINANTLY, Musical language found in the Arab-influenced regions of Southern Spain
three important events in the history of spanish music
Three important events in the history of Spanish music
  • Spanish church of Byzantine liturgical music (middle eastern influenced = mozarabic)
  • Muslim invasion in Spain
  • Immigration and establishment of gypsies (gitanos)
mozarabic chant
Mozarabic Chant
  • Mozarabic chant: modes were favored (dorian and phrygian)
  • Passing notes incorporated into melodies
  • Absence of strict meter in the melodic line, which frequently modulated away from its tonal center.
arab invasion of 711
Arab Invasion of 711
  • Complex rhythms
gypsies in spain
Gypsies in Spain
  • Cante jondo
    • Smaller intervals in the scale
    • Portamento
    • Repetition of the same note
    • Strong reactions
other spanish customs
Other Spanish Customs
  • Regional traditions
  • The guitar!!
early years
Early Years
  • Born in Cádiz on November 23, 1876
  • His father was from Valenica and his mother from Catalonia
  • La Morilla
  • Religious
  • Strong beginnings in music education
madrid years
Madrid Years
  • By 1899 he is successful as a music student in the Madrid Conservatory
  • Allegro de Concierto (ca.1900)

Premanuel Antefalla

one of ths most important aspects of madrid years
One of ths most important aspects of Madrid Years
  • Meets Pedrell
  • Worked three years together
  • …Spanish music and its history “involves a perception not only of the pastness of the past, but of its presence.” (T. S. Eliott, 1932)
la vida breve
La Vida Breve
  • Music by Falla
  • Libretto by Carlos Fernández Shaw
  • Hurried composition for competition deadline
  • Academia de Bellas Artes
  • Staged, produced and performed in FRANCE
la vida breve18
La Vida Breve
  • Two-act lyric opera drama
  • Synopsis:
    • Salud
    • Paco
    • Carmela
  • Verismo
paris years 1907 1914
Paris Years (1907-1914)
  • Friends: Debussy, Ravel, Albéniz, and

Ricardo Vines

  • Two Major Works:
    • Siete canciones populares españolas (1907-1911)
    • Noches en las jardines de España (1911-1915)
siete canciones populares espa olas
Siete canciones populares españolas
  • El Pano moruno
  • Seguidilla murciana
  • Austuriana
  • Jota
  • Nana
  • Canción
  • Polo
pedrell s influence is evident
Pedrell’s influence is evident
  • Actual folk melodies
  • Composed in the style of a particular region
  • Completely new
siete canciones populares espa olas22
Siete canciones populares españolas
  • El Pano moruno – actual folk melody
  • Seguidilla murciana – actual folk melody
  • Austuriana – based on model
  • Jota – completely new
  • Nana – based on model
  • Canción – based on model
  • Polo – completely new
  • Repetition of harmony
  • Complex rhythms
  • Intermittent and intermediate pitches
  • E Major, Dorian, Phrygian, E Major with a lowered 2nd, 7th, and 8th
noches en las jardines de espa a
Noches en las jardines de España
  • En el Generalife (summer palace of the Moorish kings in Granada)
  • Danza lejana
  • En los jardines de la Sierra de Córdoba
    • Dedicated to Viñes
    • 1911-1915
    • “Only true impressionistic work”
    • Each movement is monothematic
    • Full of complex rhythms, Andalucian harmonies, various guitar effects in the piano
el amor brujo
El Amor Brujo
  • Falla returns to Spain: to Madrid in 1914
  • El Amor Brujo – 1915 – Love the Sorcerer
  • Commissioned by the famous Russian choreographer and ballet commissioner, Sergei Diaghilev
el amor brujo27
El Amor Brujo
  • The Gypsy Ballet
  • Synopsis
    • Candelas
    • Carmelo
    • Ghost
    • Lucía
el sombrero de tres picos 1919
El Sombrero de Tres Picos (1919)
  • Another comission for the Ballet Russe
  • Symopsis:
    • Corregidor
    • Miller
    • Miller’s Wife
fantasia baetica 1919
Fantasia Baetica (1919)
  • Most difficult piano work
  • Commissioned by Artur Rubinstein
  • Represents Andalucía and all of its culture: flamenco, Arabic influence, Roman influence and even prehistoric Cádiz
  • Disjunct, difficult to play, harmonic and melodic material is complex…
homenaje a debussy 1920
Homenaje a Debussy (1920)
  • Written in response to the call for works in memoriam to Debussy
  • Only guitar work
  • Based on the Soirée dans Grenade by Debussy
  • Habanera rhythm
  • Very slow harmonic changes with lyrical and soulful melody
  • Direct quote
concerto for harpsichord or piano flute oboe clarinet violin and cello
Concerto for harpsichord (or piano), flute, oboe, clarinet, violin and cello
  • Homage to Scarlatti
  • Written in a more modern musical language
  • 16th century villancico
  • Allegro, Lento and Vivace
  • 10 minutes
harpsichord concerto
Harpsichord Concerto
  • Magnificent effects of sonority
  • “The last movement, marked flessibile, scherzando, with its characteristic sparkle; it is very Scarlattian, yet only Falla could have written it.” --Gilbert Chase
  • Commissioned by Wanda Landowska
el retablo de maese pedro
El Retablo de Maese Pedro
  • Chamber opera for puppets
  • Synopsis:
    • Don Quixote
    • Maese Pedro
    • Boy
puppet show
Puppet Show!
  • Premiered at a private home in 1923
  • Large stage problems
  • Scored for a small orchestra = 25
  • Calls for audience’s knowledge of Spain’s historical background of music:
    • Ties to Cervantes,
    • Seventeeth-century Spanish music
    • Spain’s folkloric traditions
homework for monday
HOMEWORK for Monday
  • Read from the Tomás Marco text: pp. 34-44 and 101-118