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Philadelphia Partnership Program 2004 Geography of Africa. Dr. Francis Koti 12C Leonard Hall Tel: 357 2647 Email: [email protected] What is Geography?. The study of earth, places, human-environment interaction, people, natural environment, and the movement of people, goods, and ideas.

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Dr francis koti 12c leonard hall tel 357 2647 email fkoti@geo wvu edu

Philadelphia Partnership Program 2004

Geography of Africa

Dr. Francis Koti12C Leonard HallTel: 357 2647Email: [email protected]


What is geography
What is Geography?

  • The study of earth, places, human-environment interaction, people, natural environment, and the movement of people, goods, and ideas.

  • The study of the interaction of all physical and human phenomena at the individual places and how interactions among places form patterns and organize space



Traditional core areas of geography
Traditional Core Areas of Geography

  • Physical geography

    • Studies the characteristics of the physical environment (climate, soil and vegetation)

  • Human Geography

    • Human groups and activities (languages, economic activities and cities

    • Economic geography

      • Focuses on the organization of economic livelihoods

    • Cultural Geography

      • Focuses of spatial aspects of human cultures

  • Geographic techniques - Cartography, Geographic Information Systems -GIS, Remote Sensing

    • Map making/computerized mapping constitute tools that help physical and human geographers store, display and analyze geographic data


Gis is our tool
GIS is our tool

  • Manage location-based information

  • Provides the tools to display and analyze location information, whether it’s:

    • population characteristics

    • economic development or

    • vegetation types


Gis integrates data
GIS Integrates Data.

  • GIS is more than computer maps – provides ability to:

    • link databases to maps to create dynamic displays

    • Visualize

    • Connect

    • Relate

    • Query


Fundamental themes in geography
FUNDAMENTAL THEMES IN GEOGRAPHY

  • Study of Geography begins with knowing:

    • Where things are located on the map.

    • Why things are located in particular places, and

    • How those places influence our lives

  • Location, Place, Human-Environment Interaction, Movement, and Regions.

  • Understanding of themes provides a better appreciation of cultural and environmental differences globally


Location
LOCATION

  • WHERE IS THE PHENOMENON OR PHENOMENA BEING STUDIED LOCATED?

    • Relative location

      • Distance and direction

    • Absolute location

      • Latitude and longitude

Mount St. Helens: Erupted in 1980 blowing away the mountain top


Place
PLACE

  • WHAT ARE THE PHYSICAL AND CULTURAL FEATURES OF A PARTICULAR PLACE THAT GIVE IT CHARACTER AND IDENTITY?

Wailing Wall, Jerusalem: A confluence of religious activity - Jews, Christians and Muslims


Human environment interaction
HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION

  • HOW DO PEOPLE RESPOND TO AND MODIFY THEIR ENVIRONMENT?

Sahel: Desert encroachment on pasturelands due to human and animal activity


Glen Canyon Dam: Colorado River has been dammed several times to address water problems in West United States



Example 1 transamazonian highway construction project in brazil
Example 1: Transamazonian Highway Construction Project in Brazil

  • DEVELOPMENT GOALS VS. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

    • Amazon Basin constitutes 40% Brazil’s land area – natural resource that needs to exploited

    • Highways construction; New farm lands; Building power plants

  • The Project is considered a major environmental Threat Because:

    • Alters climatic conditions which contributes to global warning

    • Leads to destruction of sensitive tropical soils

    • Leads to depletion of Bio-diversity

      • Tropical Rainforests contain 50% of the world’s animal and plants species

The Mighty Amazon


Example 2 threat of acid rain
EXAMPLE 2: Threat of Acid Rain Brazil

  • WHO ARE THE CULPRITS?

    • USA and other industrialized nations

    • Major consumers of coal-powered, petroleum based fuels, processors of metals and producers chemical goods

  • By Product of Industrial Activity:

    • Emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide

    • Solutions of sulfuric/nitric acids fall back as rain, fog and snow –(acid rain)

  • Problem compounded by wannabes – developing countries

Human Environment Interaction: Industrial Pollution


Famous quote
Famous Quote Brazil

  • “It isn’t pollution that’s harming the environment. It’s the impurities in our air and water that are doing it” (Candidate Bush, 2000 Presidential campaign)


Movement
MOVEMENT Brazil

  • WHAT ARE THE KINDS OF INTERACTION AND TYPES OF MOVEMENT THAT OCCUR AMONG PEOPLE, GOODS, IDEAS AND PLACES ON THE EARTH'S SURFACE?

    • Spatial Interaction or Movement through Space can either be simple or complex:

      • Migration

      • Diffusion

      • Trade

    • Examples:

      • Simplicity

        • A child’s morning bus ride to school

      • Complexity

        • The movement of goods and ideas between places

        • Outward growth of cities (Metropolis to megalopolis)





Complex movement of goods and ideas: The three cornered pattern of world investment among core countries


Regions
Regions pattern of world investment among core countries

  • How can the earth be divided into smaller parts in order to gain perspectives on the character and relationships between geographic areas and places?

  • How do regions form and change?

  • Use concept of region to classify certain areas in order to understand similarities and differences between them

  • The size of a region can vary as long as it is large enough to be distinguished from surrounding regions

  • Importance of the concept of scale


Scale
Scale pattern of world investment among core countries

  • Defines whether one studies a smaller or larger area

  • Representation of real world phenomenon at a certain level of reduction or generalization

  • In cartography it represents the ratio of map distance to ground distance, indicated as a bar graph.


Scale of Regions pattern of world investment among core countries


Types of regions formal and functional
Types of Regions: Formal and Functional pattern of world investment among core countries

  • Formal Regions

  • Regions exhibiting some form of uniformity in one or more variables

    • Cultural characteristics – crops, religion, politics. Etc

    • Levels of development to classification regions –Core vs. semi-periphery vs. periphery

    • Physical characteristics - climate


Types of regions
Types of Regions pattern of world investment among core countries

  • Functional Regions or Nodal Regions

    • Delineated by a single activity


Africa
AFRICA pattern of world investment among core countries


Objectives
OBJECTIVES pattern of world investment among core countries

  • TO INTRODUCE THE VARIED GEOGRAPHY OF THE AFRICAN CONTINENT

  • TO INTRODUCE STUDENTS TO DIFFERENT PEOPLE WHO INHABIT THE DIFFERENT REGIONS OF AFRICA

  • TO PROVIDE AN OVERVIEW TO THE HISTORY OF AFRICA

  • TO PROVIDE AN OVERVIEW OF DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS FOR AFRICA


What do we know about africa
WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT AFRICA? pattern of world investment among core countries

  • Very Little.

  • And most of what people know is only partially correct or based on stereotypes

  • It’s not uncommon, for example to find people who still believe Africa is a land of primitive stone-age hunters and gathers living in the jungle (the Africa of Tarzan movies); Or


Africa overview
Africa: Overview… pattern of world investment among core countries

  • The perception of Africans as innocents unaware of modern life, like the Bushman of the movie “The Gods Must Be Crazy” or

  • Jackie Chan’s movie “Who am I” Or

  • The belief that Africans are violent and cruel people who like to conduct endless tribal warfare


Africa overview1
Africa: Overview… pattern of world investment among core countries

  • Unfortunately the media reinforces these stereotypes with negative news –drought/famine, war, poverty and AIDS

  • War Internal civil strife is real:

    • CAR, DRC, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Sudan, Algeria, Burundi, Rwanda


Africa overview2
Africa: Overview… pattern of world investment among core countries

  • Also drought and famine is real

Drought affected countries

Famine Relief center



Unfortunately media focus on big stories leads to an uninformed public
Unfortunately Media focus on “Big Stories” leads to an uninformed public:

  • Not Surprisingly:

    • Most Americans view Africa as a country and not what it is a continent or a region of the world.

    • Remember this gaffe : “Nigeria is an important continent.”

  • Lack of Geography and History courses on Africa in High School and College compounds the problem.

  • Need to correct the problem:

2000 Presidential Debate


What is africa
What is Africa? uninformed public:

  • Africa is a Continent of Contrasts attributable to four factors::

  • Size

  • Geographical position

    • Only continent divided by the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. Thus Africa is Tropical with few exceptions (77% lies in the tropics)

  • Long history of human occupation

    • Story of humanity begins in Africa. Remains of our oldest ancestor “Homo” was discovered in East Africa

    • The beginnings of technology (stone tools) dating back 2 millions years have been discovered in Africa

  • Diversity


What about size
What about Size?... uninformed public:

  • AFRICA IS THE SECOND LARGEST CONTINENT AFTER ASIA

  • INCLUDES THE SINAI PENINSULA, MADAGASCAR, Mauritius, Reunion, Seychelles, etc.

  • AFRICA IS LARGER THAN THE CONTINENT OF EUROPE AND THE COUNTRIES OF CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES COMBINED


Africa s physical features
AFRICA’S PHYSICAL FEATURES uninformed public:

  • Land mass composed of Plateaus and bounded escarpments: The plateau continent

    • Almost the entire continent lies above 1,000 feet in elevation

    • Bihe, Jos, Ennedi, Ahagger, East African Plateau, and Futa Jolan

  • Plateau structure is punctuated with Basins and Mountains:

    • El djouf, Chad, Sudan,Victoria, Congo and Kalahari

    • Atlas, Kilimanjaro, Kenya, and Cameroon


Other major physical features
OTHER MAJOR PHYSICAL FEATURES uninformed public:

  • Deserts: Sahara, Namib, and Kalahari

    • Aridity is a major barrier to development in many countries such as Botswana, Namibia, Mali and Northern Nigeria.

  • Major Rivers: Nile, Niger, Congo, Zambezi, Orange

  • Rift Valley


  • Climate charactersitics
    CLIMATE CHARACTERSITICS uninformed public:

    • Africa is tropical with few exceptions

      • Seasonal temperature contrasts are minimal but rainfall amounts vary significantly

      • The continent is dominated by tropical wet and dry (savanna) followed by arid/semi-arid climates

  • Rainfall is distributed into wet-and dry seasons


  • Effect of tropical wet and dry climate tale of cities kano vs chicago
    Effect of Tropical Wet and Dry Climate: uninformed public:Tale of Cities (Kano vs. Chicago)


    Africa s diversity includes
    Africa’s Diversity includes... uninformed public:

    • 5 regions (North, West, East, Central and Southern) comprising 54 countries

    • Approximately 800 million people who speak more than 2000 languages call Africa home.


    Africans enjoy diverse household arrangements, kinships systems and Religious belief systems that pre-date Christianity


    Africa’s diversity is also reflected in the contrasting lifestyles of a small but growing urban population and the mass of subsistence farmers.


    Africa s diversity can also be seen in contrasting rural and urban landscapes
    Africa’s Diversity can also be seen in contrasting rural and urban landscapes

    Harare, Zimbabwe: Jacaranda bloom


    Historical geography

    HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY and urban landscapes

    The Impact of Colonialism


    What was the primary motive for european involvement in africa
    WHAT WAS THE PRIMARY MOTIVE FOR EUROPEAN INVOLVEMENT IN AFRICA?

    • Major Motive for European Involvement in Africa was Strategic following the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869

    • Colonization in the 17th Century only a minor motive (Dutch outpost in South Africa in 1652)

    • Economic motive only followed after the discovery of diamonds at Kimberley later in 1869 and Gold in 1886 in South Africa.

    Pre-Colonial Africa


    Berlin conference of 1884 85
    BERLIN CONFERENCE OF 1884-85 AFRICA?

    • Led to the partition and scramble for Africa.

    • By 1914 only Ethiopia and Liberia remained free of European occupation

    • Why Ethiopia and Liberia?

      • Strategic maneuvering by Ethiopian rule, Menalik

      • Founded in 1847 as Homeland for freed slaves


    End of colonialism in africa
    END OF COLONIALISM IN AFRICA AFRICA?

    • Internal Factors

      • Rise of Nationalism

      • Impact of Religious and Secular Education

  • External Factors

    • Impact of the Russian Revolution

    • Rise of American Domination

    • Impact of World War II

    • Impact of the Formation of the United Nations


  • Road to independence
    Road to Independence AFRICA?

    • NORTH AFRICA

      • Egypt (1925), Libya, Tunisia, and Sudan - but not Algeria (1962)

      • Eritrea forced into a federation with Ethiopia

  • SUB-SAHARA AFRICA

    • Ghana (1957, and the rest by the 1960s

    • Only exceptions --Angola, Mozambique, and Guinea Bissau (1975); Zimbabwe (1980), Namibia (1990), and South Africa (1994)

  • Symbol of Africa Resistance


  • Apartheid south africa and the dawn of independence
    Apartheid South Africa and the Dawn of Independence AFRICA?

    • Apartheid: Policy of separate development was introduced in 1948

      • Race classification (whites,blacks, Asian, colored)

      • Tribal homelands

      • Pass laws

    • 1964 Mandela sentenced to life in prison.

    • 1976 Soweto Uprising

      • Imposition of Afrikaans as language of instruction

      • Growth of Anti-Apartheid Movement globally

        • Forced Divestment of global capital

        • Forced change in USA foreign policy

    • 1990 Nelson Mandela is freed after 27 years in prison

    • 1993 Mandela Wins Nobel Peace Prize with de Klerk

    • 1994 South Africa achieves independence with Mandela as President

    Mandela: A symbol of African Resistance


    Africa s rich natural resourse base
    AFRICA’S RICH NATURAL RESOURSE BASE AFRICA?

    Timber products

    Minerals


    Mineral production in africa

    World’s leading producers of diamonds, gold, radium, and cobalt

    South Africa --diamonds/gold

    Botswana --diamonds

    Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) –Colton, cobalt, radium

    South Africa and DRC --major producers of “strategic minerals”

    Mineral %

    Antimony 13

    Asbestos 08

    Bauxite 16

    Chromite 40

    Copper 11

    Cobalt 25

    Colton 65

    Diamonds 65

    Gold 41

    Phosphate 21

    Radium 40

    Uranium 25

    Vanadium 29

    Mineral Production in Africa

    • Africa's % of World Production.


    Energy resources
    ENERGY RESOURCES cobalt

    • Petroleum (Nigeria, Gabon, Angola)

      • USA imports 10% oil from Nigeria

    • Coal

      • Only 3% of world’s recoverable coal reserves in Africa (Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe)

    • 1/3 of the world’s potential hydroelectric power production far exceeds the production capacity of NA, SA, Europe and Australia combined

    • BUT, approx. 80% of Africa’s energy needs are derived from firewood


    Understanding africa s problems and prospects
    Understanding Africa’s Problems and Prospects cobalt

    • Africa is poor and getting poorer, despite a wide range of resources: Why?

      • Worsening Debt Crisis

      • Africa’s Colonial Legacy

      • AIDS Epidemic

      • Economic mismanagement and corruption

      • Limited human resource capital

      • Limited markets


    Problem 1 worsening debt crisis
    Problem 1: Worsening Debt Crisis cobalt

    • World’s most indebted nations are in Africa

      • The Debt burden for Sub-Sahara Africa jumped from $6 billion in 1970 to $260 billion in 1990

    • What they owe as a percentage of GNP

      • Sao Tome and Principe 615%

      • Guinea-Bissau 518%

      • Angola 298%

      • DRC 267%


    Problem 2 colonial legacy
    Problem 2: Colonial legacy cobalt

    • Creation of arbitrary boundaries that violate traditional boundaries

    • Imposition of foreign political systems by former colonial governments has not worked in Africa’s favor

    • Also the problem of too many land-locked countries


    Problem 3 aids crisis

    70% of new HIV infections are in Africa cobalt

    Problem 3: AIDS Crisis

    • Impact of HIV/AIDS in Africa in 2001 resulted in:

      • 3.4million new infections

      • 2.3million deaths

      • 28million living with Aids

      • Life expectancy: 47 years

      • Without Aids: 65 years

      • 44% of pregnant urban women in Botswana HIV+


    Hiv aids problem compounded by shortage of drugs
    HIV/AIDS problem compounded by shortage of Drugs cobalt

    (Periphery, the

    healthcare

    System is on

    Life support)

    (Core: problem

    Of thrill seekers)


    Problem 4 economic mismanagement and corruption
    Problem 4: Economic Mismanagement and corruption cobalt

    • Economic mismanagement and corruption


    Problem 5 declining agricultural production and food crisis
    PROBLEM 5: DECLINING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND FOOD CRISIS cobalt

    Countries Dependent on a single Crop (50% of Export Earnings)

    • “Africa produces what it does not consume and consumes what it does not produce”-Ali Mazrui, 1986

    • Distorted Agricultural Systems

      • Bias in the production of cash crops (commodity crops). WHY?

    • The need to generate revenue/foreign exchange

    • Lack of Domestic Manufacturing capacity


    Problems of over reliance on cash crops
    PROBLEMS OF OVER RELIANCE ON CASH CROPS cobalt

    • Decline in the price of commodity crops in International markets worsens balance of payments problem

    • Leads to an increase in the production of commodity crops

    • Increased production of cash crops takes land away from food crops

    • Displacement of food crops encourages food imports


    Problems associated with food imports
    PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH FOOD IMPORTS cobalt

    • Food imports depress the price of locally produced food crops

    • Food imports encourage Governments ignore needed agricultural reforms. For example:

      • The need to improve access to agricultural inputs

      • The need to improve access to credit facilities to purchase equipment

      • The need to improve rural infrastructure

      • The need for land reform

    • Food Imports exacerbates Africa’s debt crisis


    Problem 6 limited human resource capital
    Problem 6: Limited Human Resource Capital cobalt

    • Limited trained people

      • Means reduced capacity

    • Limited markets

      • Affect industrialization


    Future prospects
    FUTURE PROSPECTS cobalt

    • Africa - making significant progress towards political democratization and development

      • Nigeria - making a transition to civilian rule

      • Botswana - an envy of stability and prosperity.

    • South Africa - Africa’s economic giant -making a successfully transition to a stable democracy

    • Chances for success boasted by a strong natural base


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