Hazardous industrial factors and their influence on human health. Classification of hazardous environmental factors Physical Chemical Biological. In developing health standards with such concepts are operated as the maximum permissible concentration (MPC),
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Hazardous industrial factors
and their influence on human health
Classification of hazardous environmentalfactors
In developing health standards with such concepts are operated as
The maximum permissible concentration (MPC) - the maximum amount of a toxic substance in a unit volume or mass of water, air or soil, which has almost no effect on human health.
The maximum allowable levels (MAL) - repeated throughout life or constant influence of environmental factors (noise, vibration, pollution, low temperature, etc.) that do not cause physical or mental illness, and changes in health status.
- weather condition,
- high and low temperatures,
- the change in atmospheric pressure,
- Ionizing radiation,
- vibration, noise,
are the cause of vibration disease, cochlear neuritis,radiation pathology, decompression of disease.
are the cause of diseases associated with changes in atmospheric pressure.
When working on the raising the height of a low-pressure conditions (climbers in the mountains, pilots in high altitude flights, astronauts)
mountain sicknesscan develop.
When working in depth under impact of high atmospheric pressure, for example, people who deal with diving and caisson work and working in compression pressure chambers, caisson disease (aeroembolism) develops.
Weatherconditions are characterized by such physical factors of an atmosphere:
- in temperature (t),
- relative humidity (w),
- in the speed of movement of air (v),
These factors effect weather or a microclimate on workplaces and in industrial areas.
For keeping of a constant body temperature an organism should be in stabile temperature condition.
Correct thermoregulation in an organism it can be carried out only at the certain condition of an environment, i.e. at the certain combinations of temperature, humidity and speed of movement of air.
At the person taking place in rest and staying in conditions of meteorological comfort are:
temperature 18-20 °С;
relative humidity of 40-60 %;
speed of movement of air of 0,2-0,3 km/s.
Heat in human consumption:
heating of air inhaled and received food and water -
the rest of the heat (90-95%) is dissipated into the environment through the skin:
• radiation (heat objects having a lower temperature ~ 45%);
• convection for heating clothes and close to the body of the air layers of ~ 30%;
• evaporation of moisture from the skin and lungs of about 25%.
With prolonged exposure of the body to high temperature of the atmosphere, especially in the absence of air movement and high humidity, temperature regulation is disturbed, the body is overheated and dehydrated, which leads to disruption of physiological processes, causing serious health problems:
exhaustion, convulsions, collapse and heat stroke.
Microclimate cooling is a combination of parameters, in which the total heat transfer to the environment exceeds the body's heat production.
This leads to a general and/or local shortage of heat in the body.
Symptoms of hypothermia stages with the growth of the danger of hypothermia:
• deviation from normal behavior, aggression,
and later apathy;
• the loss of a sense of danger;
• clumsiness of movement, speech;
• loss of consciousness;
Mechanical vibrational motion, repeated at certain intervals.
The oscillation frequency is measured in hertz (Hz),
velocity - in meters per second (m/s),
Remote control to adjust the level of vibration
- 112 dB (115-109) and 76 dB (73-109).
Vibration with a frequency of 8 Hz and 16 Hz refers to the low-frequency,
31,5 and 63 Hz - the mid-range,
from 125, 250, 500, 1000 Hz - the drivers.
The greatest risk of developing the disease in the frequency of vibration of 16-250 Hz.
Vibration disease is an occupational disease caused by an effect of high levels of vibration on the workers' body, characterized polymorphic clinical symptoms.
Vibration disease is the third leading occupational diseases (7-25%).
Depending on the type of contact with the working body vibration can be distinguished between local and general vibration.
Local vibration occurs by transfer through the upper extremity.
General vibration is transmitted through the bearing surfaces of the body of a seated or standing person (bench, floor, processed product, platform, etc.).
Gloves, helmets, earplugs, special suits and kneecaps are used for protection from local vibration.
A basic way of protection from general vibration is vibroisolation of the vibration source.
Vibroactivity units are installed on vibration isolators (spring, elastic strips, pneumatic devices, etc.) to protect from the effects of vibration.
Effect of chemicals causes acute and chronic intoxication.
The most common toxicity of benzene and its homologues
compounds of hard metals:
lead, mercury, arsenic.
Benzene (C6H6, PhH)is an organic chemical compound, a colorless liquid with a pleasant sweet smell.
MPC – 5мг/м3
Benzene and its derivatives are widely used in various industries.
Used as a solvent for vanishes and paints for different compounds and synthetic products insecticides, drugs and explosives (trinitrotoluol).
and through intact skin
To control pests and diseases of agricultural crops, a variety of chemical pesticides - pesticides.
Direct contact that occurs during transportation, storage, seed treatment and sowing, spraying plants, etc.
Depending of the chemical composition there are:
Organochlorine - DDT;
Organophosphorus - karbofos, malation;
Organomercury - fungioks, agronad;
Arsenic - rat poison.
This group of compounds is expressed by cumulative properties.
They enter the body through the respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract, and intact skin.
They excrete from an organism through kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, sweat and mammary glands.
Industrial dust (aerosols)
One deals with excessive dustiness in such cases:
In the foundry which is characterized by the presence of dust containing silica in combination with toxic gases;
In machining production there are effects of mixed dust, for example during welding.
Industrial dust (aerosols)
In productionof building materials –
cement and asbestos factories, production of silica brick
In textile, flour, sugar production and agriculture (exposure to organic dust vegetable, mineral dust).
Chronic disease caused by prolonged inhalation and deposition of dust in the lungs with development of diffuse fibrosis.
Maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of industrial dust containing is 1 – 4 mg/m3
Working with antibiotics, fungi-producers, protein-vitamin concentrate, enzyme preparations can cause dysbiosis, skin candidiasis, mucous membranes, visceral candidiasis and respiratory diseases.
Infectious and parasitic diseases which occur during work process are called professional diseases, for example brucellosis, tuberculosis, infectious hepatitis.
Bisynosis is an occupational lung disease of individuals who are exposed to the dust of organic fibrous materials (cotton, flax, hemp) for a long time, permissible concentration of the dust of vegetable and animal origin.
Maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of natural dust containing is 2 – 6 mg/m3
The basis of clinical symptom of bisinosis are bronchial obstruction - due to sensibilization: histamine and others (fungi and bacteria).
Patients complain of difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, dry cough, weakness.