Nafta at 20 years us mexico chamber of commerce november 7 2013
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NAFTA at 20 Years US Mexico Chamber of Commerce November 7, 2013. Animesh Ghoshal DePaul University. North America as a Competitor on the Global Stage. Mexico in 1982 Integration of US and Mexican Economies Concerns about China

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NAFTA at 20 Years US Mexico Chamber of Commerce November 7, 2013

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NAFTA at 20 YearsUS Mexico Chamber of CommerceNovember 7, 2013

Animesh Ghoshal

DePaul University


North America as a Competitor on the Global Stage

  • Mexico in 1982

  • Integration of US and Mexican Economies

  • Concerns about China

  • Other issues (demography, employment, border crossing, security, education)

  • Changes in Mexico


Economic Situation in Mexico, 1982


Integration of US and Mexican Economies

  • Trade: Amount and Quality

  • Investment

  • Tourism

  • Population Movement


Integration of US and Mexican Economies: GDP Growth Rates


Growth of Trade, 1985-2012


US Imports from Canada, China, Mexico


Quality of Trade: US “Vertical Integration” with Major Trading Partners


Intra-Industry Trade: Biggest US imports and exports with Mexico, 2012 (billions of dollars)


Intra-Industry Trade: Biggest US imports and exports with China, 2012 (billions of dollars)


Growth in Bilateral Investment: US FDI in Mexico


Growth in Bilateral Investment: Mexican FDI in US


FDI Flows in Mexico, 1992-2011


Overall FDI Inflows into Mexico

  • Dependence on US has actually decreased since advent of NAFTA

  • FDI inflows in 2011:

    • Total, from OECD: $19.6 billion

      • US: $10.6 b

      • Spain: $3.3 b

      • Netherlands: $1.5 b

      • Switzerland: $1.2 b


Mexican Concerns about Competition from China


In some industries, Mexican exports displaced by China


In others, no evidence of displacement


In Some Industries, China’s Share Growing, but Mexico’s Share Growing Too


Mexican Concerns about Competition from China (cont)

  • China joined WTO in 2001

    • Faced reduced trade barriers (MFN)

    • Very low labor costs

      • In 2003, hourly labor cost in China $0.62,

        in Mexico $5.06

  • Many maquiladoras shut down or moved to China, but…

  • Labor costs in China have risen rapidly

    In 2008, hourly labor cost in China $1.36

    in Mexico $6.12

    Since 2008, wages in China have increased 10-20 percent a year


“Labor Arbitrage” and Manufacturing Costs


Production Advantages, China vs. Mexico


Role of Distance: Travel Time to Northern US


Role of Distance: Travel Time to Major World Ports


Other Issues

  • Tourism

  • Demography

  • Education: major factor in long term growth


Tourism and Population Movement

  • Tourism:

    • Mexico #1 destination for US residents in 2011

      • Mexico 20.1m, Canada 11.6m, UK 2.4m

    • Mexico #2 source of tourists to US in 2011

      • Canada 21.3m, Mexico 13.5m, UK 2.4m

  • Population Movement and Social Networks

    • US: 12 m residents born in Mexico, 32 m of Mexican origin

    • Mexico: I m American residents (20% of total)


US: Ageing Population:Demographic Challenge


Mexico: Younger Population“Demographic Window”


Education: Average Years of Schooling for Population over 15


Productivity Trends: Changes in Gaps with US, 1980-2011, Annual Average (Source: OECD)


Mexico’s Economy Has Some Problems

  • Extremely high dependence on US, with 80% of exports going to one country

  • Trade agreements with many countries, but rules of origin make export diversification difficult

  • Lack of competition in many industries

  • Concerns about violence


But Mexico today very different from Mexico of the past

  • Composition of Exports

  • Macroeconomic Conditions

    • Inflation

    • Exchange Rate

    • Debt Service

    • Interest Rate


Composition of Mexico’s Exports, 1982 and 2010


Economic Situation in Mexico, 1982 and 2011


Macroeconomic Conditions in 2012, US and Mexico


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