Jędrasik J., Kowalewski M., Ołdakowski B.,
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Jędrasik J., Kowalewski M., Ołdakowski B., University of Gdansk, Institute of Oceanography Impact of the Vistula River waters on the G ulf of G dańsk during 1994-2002. European Commission project EUROCAT : European Catchments Changes and their Impact on the Coast Case Study VISCAT :

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European Commission project EUROCAT : European Catchments Changes and their Impact on the Coast

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European commission project eurocat european catchments changes and their impact on the coast

Jędrasik J., Kowalewski M., Ołdakowski B.,University of Gdansk, Institute ofOceanographyImpact of the Vistula River waters on the Gulf of Gdańsk during 1994-2002

European Commission project EUROCAT:

European Catchments Changes and their Impact on the Coast

Case StudyVISCAT:

The Vistula River Catchment and the Baltic Sea Coastal Zone


European commission project eurocat european catchments changes and their impact on the coast

Plan:

1. The ecohydrodynamic model of the Baltic Sea

General discription

  • ProDeMo model

    • algorithm + modifications

    • Calibration, verification, validation

    • quality evaluation of the model

    • chosen results

2. Impact of the Vistula River on the Gulf of Gdańsk - examples

3. Conclusions


The ecohydrodynamic model of the baltic sea

The ecohydrodynamic model of the Baltic Sea


European commission project eurocat european catchments changes and their impact on the coast

ProDeMo model

NUTRIENTS

N-NO3

N-NH4

P-PO4

DETRITUS

Si-SiO4

CDETR

NDETR

ZOOPLANKTON

Zooplankton

C:N:P

PDETR

SiDETR

Atmosphere

8

17

16

1 nutrient uptake

2 grazing

3 phytoplank. resp.

4 phytoplank. decay

5 sedimentation

6 nutr. release f. sed

7atmospheric dep.

8 denitrification

9 mineralization

10 zooplankt. resp.

11 sed.of P ads. on particles,

12 detritus sed.

13 zooplankt. decay

14 nitrogen fixation

15 nutrient deposition

processes influen. dissolved oxygen

16 reaeration,

17 flux to atmo. due to over saturation

18 zooplankt. resp.

19 phytoplank. resp.

20 assimilation

21 mineralization

22 nitrification

23 denitrification

7

23

DISSOLVED

OXYGEN

PHYTOPLANKTON

14

Blue-green algae

22

20

Springdiatoms

19

1

Autumndiatoms

3

Dinoflagellate

Water

21

4

Green algae

2

9

10

6

13

18

11

12

5

Active layer

NSED

PSED

SiSED

15

Inactive layer

15

15

Sediment


Calibration

Calibration

based at stations P1, P110, ZN2 for 1994- 2002 period

Verification

as asessment of behavior of the model

Validation

test how the model results fit the observation data


Monitoring stations at the southern baltic

Monitoring stations at the southern Baltic

The hydrodynamic model is based on the POM (Princeton Ocean Model).

The numerical application of the model has been embedded on two nested grids:

1 NM for

the Gulf of Gdańsk

in 5 NM for

the BalticSea.

A “sigma” transformation for 18 layers are used.


Validation of the model station p1 z 0m

Validation of the model – station P1 z = 0m


Validation of the model station p1

Validation of the model – station P1


European commission project eurocat european catchments changes and their impact on the coast

Observed and modelled vertical distribution of the variable states during winter and summer seasons in 2001


European commission project eurocat european catchments changes and their impact on the coast

Observed and modelled vertical distribution of the variable states during winter and summer seasons in 2001


European commission project eurocat european catchments changes and their impact on the coast

Observed and modelled vertical distribution of the variable statesduring winter and summer seasons in 2001

The vertical distributions of the modelled parameters follows the observations, however better agreements have been achieved in the upper layer than in the layer below the halocline

(60-70 m).


Quality of the prodemo model

Quality of the ProDeMo model

An excellent agreement for salinity,

dissolved oxygen

and temperature.

Other compared parameters lie

in the good range

except nitrate nitrogen as acceptable and ammonium nitrogen low satisfactory.


M ean concentrations of the modelled parameters for 15 th june 1999

Mean concentrations of the modelled parameters for 15thJune1999


V ariation in biomass and structure of phytoplankton modelled for 15 th june 1999

Variation in biomass and structure of phytoplanktonmodelled for 15th June1999


Distribution of phytoplankton at gdansk deep station p1 in period 1994 2002

Distribution of phytoplankton at Gdansk Deep station P1 in period 1994 - 2002

The vegetation seasons start with the high blooms of diatoms during the spring.

During the summer dinoflagellates and green algae dominates.

The blue-green algae are able to assimilate the nitrogen from the atmosphere. Their appearance varies from year to year since they prefer higher water temperature and solar radiation.

Autumn diatoms starts to grow in September and they dominate trough whole autumn.


Annual input of the vistula river into the gulf of gda sk

Annual input of the Vistula and other rivers into the Gulf of Gdańsk

Annual input of the Vistula River into the Gulf of Gdańsk

Vistula the second largest river of the Baltic Sea

introduces into the Gulf of Gdańsk

85% of discharged fresh waters

90% of nitrogen compounds

(it takes part 15% of N

in the Baltic)

23% is retained at the Gulf

92% of phosphorus compounds

(it takes part 20% of P

in the Baltic)

34% is retained at the Gulf


European commission project eurocat european catchments changes and their impact on the coast

Distributions of N-NO3 and P-PO4 in crossection through the Gulf of Gdańskfrom mouth of the Vistula River to the station P1at 4th March 1995


Spreading of the vistula waters at the gulf of gdansk during 11 april 10 may 2000

Spreading of the Vistula watersat the Gulf of Gdansk during 11 April – 10 May 2000

The hydrodynamics influences

on the nutrient and phytoplankton distributions.

During the spring season influence of the Vistula River waters on the nutrient concentrations are even at the open waters of the Gulf of Gdańsk.

11 April – 10 May 2000, the main pathway of the Vistula River water - the North-West direction.


European commission project eurocat european catchments changes and their impact on the coast

Sequence of surface distribution of phytoplankton biomass, nitrates and phosphates at the Gulf of Gdansk between February 22 – March 27 1995


Conclusions

ProDeMo model calibrated, verified and validated

using monitoringdatafor 9 years period 1994-2002, resulted in the model obtained evidences (high statistical evaluation) which permit to consider it as reliable tool for studding the coastal processes in the Gulf of Gdańsk.

The model has properly described the seasonal distribution of nutrients, temperature and dissolved oxygen, however near the bottom it was overestimated.

Other compared parameters lie in the good range of quality of model except nitrate nitrogen as acceptable and ammonium nitrogen low satisfactory.

The biomass distributions of the five phytoplankton groups as well as time and places of their blooms appeared reliable.

Conclusions

Impact of the Vistula River on the Gulf of Gdańsk

From among various effects of the Vistula River discharge on the environmental state of the coastal waters are:

pathways of the Vistula River waters in the Gulf

temporal and spatial dynamics of nutrients

blooms and seasonal variations of phytoplankton biomass


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