Anatomy physiology tissues
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ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY TISSUES. TISSUES. group of similar cells specialized to perform a specific function. Tissues: 4 Types. Epithelial Connective Muscle Nervous. Epithelial Tissue (Epithelium). the lining, covering, and glandular tissue of the body Functions: Protection Secretion

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Anatomy physiology tissues

ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYTISSUES


Tissues

TISSUES

  • group of similar cells specialized to perform a specific function


Tissues 4 types

Tissues: 4 Types

  • Epithelial

  • Connective

  • Muscle

  • Nervous


Epithelial tissue epithelium

Epithelial Tissue (Epithelium)

  • the lining, covering, and glandular tissue of the body

  • Functions:

  • Protection

  • Secretion

  • Absorption

  • Filtration


Characteristic of epithelium

Characteristic of Epithelium

  • cells close together, some connected by cell junctions

  • top layer exposed to exterior of body or inside of cavity (apical layer)

  • lower surface connected to a Basement Membrane (BM)

  • is avascular (no direct blood supply)

  • able to regenerate if well nourished


Classification of epithelium

Classification of Epithelium

simple

stratified

>1 layer cells

  • 1 layer cells


Shape classification of epithelium

Shape Classification of Epithelium

Squamous

cuboidal

cube-shape

  • “fried-egg” shape


Shape classification of epithelium1

Shape Classification of Epithelium

columnar

Name the shape:

  • tall, rectangular shape


Simple epithelium

Simple Epithelium

  • Functions:

    • Absorption

    • Secretion

    • Filtration


Simple squamous epithelium

Simple Squamous Epithelium

  • thin layer squamous cells resting on BM

  • cells close together (think floor tiles)

  • forms membranes where filtration or rapid diffusion necessary (lungs, kidneys)

  • forms serous membranes or serosa : moist, shiny membranes that line ventral body cavities and covers organ in them


Simple squamous epithelium1

Simple Squamous Epithelium


Simple cuboidal epithelium

Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

  • 1 layer cuboidal cells on BM

  • found in glands, ducts, kidney tubules, covers ovaries


Simplecolumnar epithelium

SimpleColumnar Epithelium

  • 1 layer columnar cells packed closely together

  • interspersed with Goblet Cells which make & release mucus

  • lines GI tract from stomach  anus

  • forms mucosae (mucous membranes) that line body cavities open to exterior of body


Simple columnar epithelium

Simple Columnar Epithelium


Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium

  • appears to have multiple layers but only has 1

  • all cells attached to BM but not all cells reach apical surface (top)

  • mainly does absorption & secretion

  • 2 varieties:

  • Ciliated

    • in lining of trachea

  • Nonciliated


Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium


Pseudostratified nonciliated columnar epithelium

PseudostratifiedNonciliatedColumnar Epithelium


Stratified epithelium

Stratified Epithelium

  • >1 layer of cells, epithelium named for shape of top layer

  • more durable than simple epithelium

  • primary function is protection


Stratified squamous epithelium

Stratified Squamous Epithelium

  • #1 stratified epithelium in body

  • 2 varieties:

  • keratinized

  • nonkeratinized

    • Keratin: tough, insoluble protein found in hair, nails, & epidermis


Stratified squamous epithelium1

Stratified Squamous Epithelium

keratinized

nonkeratinized


Stratified cuboidal epithelium

Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium

  • 2 or more layers with top layer cuboidal


Transitional epithelium

Transitional Epithelium

  • “transitions” from 1 shape to another

  • found in urinary bladder, ureters, urethra

  • when vol of urine high epitheliumis stretched and epithelium looks like squamous cells

  • when vol of urine low cells appear dome-shaped, cuboidal


Transitional epithelium1

Transitional Epithelium


Stratified columnar epithelium

Stratified Columnar Epithelium

  • found in salivary ducts


Connective tissue ct

Connective Tissue (CT)

  • connects things

  • is everywhere in body

  • #1 tissue type for amount and distribution


Connective tissue characteristics

Connective Tissue Characteristics

  • most CT well vascularized

    • except:

      • ligaments, tendons poor blood supply

      • cartilage is avascular

  • make extracellular matrix (in varying amounts)


Extracellular matrix

Extracellular Matrix

  • 2 main elements:

  • structureless ground substance

    • water

    • adhesive proteins (glues everything together)

    • charged polysaccharides (trap water) control viscosity of the CT

  • fibers

    • collagen: #1 protein in body

    • elastic

    • reticular


Extracellular matrix1

Extracellular Matrix


Connective tissues functions

Connective Tissues Functions

  • protection

  • support

  • binding substances together

  • absorption of large amounts of water (ground substance)


Types of connective tissues

Types of Connective Tissues

  • Bone

  • Cartilage

  • Dense CT

  • Loose CT

  • Blood


Anatomy physiology tissues

Bone

  • aka osseous tissue

  • few cells surrounded by hard matrix

    • calcium salts

  • due to its hardness has exceptional ability to protect & support


Anatomy physiology tissues

Bone


Cartilage

Cartilage

  • more flexible than bone(also not as hard)

  • Types:

  • Hyaline Cartilage

    • matrix is glassy, blue-white

    • found: ends of long bones, larynx, fetal skeleton

  • Elastic Cartilage

    • external ear

  • Fibrocartilage

    • very compressible, forms discs in vertebral column


Hyaline cartilage

Hyaline Cartilage


Dense ct

Dense CT

  • matrix: collagen fibers main ingredient + fibroblasts (make collagen)

  • function: strength

  • found:

  • tendons

    • attach muscle to bone

  • Ligaments

    • connect bone to bone


Dense ct1

Dense CT

  • Ligaments:

  • Tendons:


Loose ct

Loose CT

  • softer, more cellular, fewer fibers than most other CT

  • Types:

  • Areolar CT

  • Adipose Tissue

  • Reticular CT


Areolar ct

Areolar CT

  • “cobwebby”

  • diffusely distributed thru out body

  • layer under all mucous membranes (lamina propria)

  • Functions:

  • cushions & protects

  • holds things together

  • reservoir of water (where water held when injured area becomes edematous)


Areolar ct1

Areolar CT


Adipose tissue

Adipose Tissue

  • aka fat

  • adipocytes =fat cells

    • “signet ring”

  • found :

    • subcutaneous layer beneath skin

    • around kidneys, eyeballs


Adipose tissue1

Adipose Tissue


Reticular ct

Reticular CT

  • reticular cells which make reticular fibers (finer than collagen)

  • forms: stroma: internal framework that supports ie. Stroma in lymph nodes support lymphocytes


Reticular ct1

Reticular CT


Blood

Blood

  • blood cells in fluid matrix (plasma)

  • Function:

    • carries nutrients, gases, wastes, hormones etc. to/from cells

  • Plasma:

    • fibers: soluble proteins become visible during blood clotting


Blood cells

Blood Cells


Muscle tissue

Muscle Tissue

  • specialized to contract  produce motion

  • cells called muscle fibers

  • Types:

  • Skeletal

  • Cardiac

  • Smooth


Skeletal muscle

Skeletal Muscle

  • striated & voluntary

  • most attached to bones

    • contraction causes bone to move


Cardiac muscle

Cardiac Muscle

  • striated, involuntary

  • found only in the heart

  • cardiac muscle fibers have gaps between them (called intercalated discs) so conduction of nerve impulse is quicker


Cardiac muscle tissue

Cardiac Muscle Tissue


Smooth muscle tissue

Smooth Muscle Tissue

  • no striations, involuntary

  • found: w/in tubes &hollow organs, iris

  • peristalsis: contractions of smooth muscle w/in esophagus large intestine


Smooth muscle tissue1

Smooth Muscle Tissue


Nervous tissue

Nervous Tissue

  • found in brain, spinal cord, nerves

  • nerve cells called neurons

  • irritability & conductivity

    • neurons receive & conduct nerve impulses


Neuroglia

Neuroglia

  • cells that support neurons

    • astrocytes

    • oligodendrocytes

    • ependymal cells

    • microglia

    • Schwann cells

    • satellite cells


Nervous tissue1

Nervous Tissue


Wound healing

Wound Healing

  • Inflammation:

  • nonspecific, generalized response aimed at preventing further injury

  • Immune Response:

  • specific response aimed at specific invader


Wound healing1

Wound Healing

  • Regeneration

    • replacement of destroyed tissue by same cells

    • repair appears like normal tissue

  • Fibrosis

    • repair by dense, fibrous CT

    • ?Regeneration or Fibrosis?

      • type of tissue

      • severity of injury


3 stages of tissue injury

3 Stages of Tissue Injury

  • Leaky Capillaries

  • clotting proteins enter injured area & form clot

  • bleeding stops & clot holds edges of wound together

  • clot protects injured area from contamination(infection, dirt)

  • clot dries  scab


Clot formation

Clot Formation


Anatomy physiology tissues

2. Granulation Tissue Forms

  • is a delicate pink tissue

  • mostly capillaries (friable)

  • contains phagocytes (eat up clot & fibroblasts that synthesize collagen which forms scar)


Granulation tissue

Granulation Tissue


Anatomy physiology tissues

3. Surface epithelium regenerates

  • grows from edges  center

  • scar depends on depth & severity of wound


Regeneration varies by tissue type

Regeneration varies by tissue type

  • Regeneration goes well in epithelial tissues and fibrous CT & bone

  • Muscle regenerates poorly

  • Nervous tissue replaced by scar tissue


Embryonic development of tissues

Embryonic Development of Tissues

  • 3 primary germ layers formed from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst (7-14 days after fertilization)


3 primary germ layers

3 Primary Germ Layers

  • Ectoderm  nervous system & epidermis

  • Endoderm mucosa & glands

  • Mesoderm  everything else


22 day embryo

22 day embryo


Normal aging process

Normal Aging Process

  • uncertain what causes aging process to start

    • chemical or environmental insults

    • aging “clock”


Tissue changes with aging

Tissue Changes with Aging

  • Epithelial: membranes thin, skin less elastic, glands secrete less

  • CT: bones porous, tissue repair slower

  • Muscle Tissue: muscles atrophy

  • Nervous Tissue: nervous tissue atrophies


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