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ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY TISSUES. TISSUES. group of similar cells specialized to perform a specific function. Tissues: 4 Types. Epithelial Connective Muscle Nervous. Epithelial Tissue (Epithelium). the lining, covering, and glandular tissue of the body Functions: Protection Secretion

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  • group of similar cells specialized to perform a specific function

Tissues 4 types
Tissues: 4 Types

  • Epithelial

  • Connective

  • Muscle

  • Nervous

Epithelial tissue epithelium
Epithelial Tissue (Epithelium)

  • the lining, covering, and glandular tissue of the body

  • Functions:

  • Protection

  • Secretion

  • Absorption

  • Filtration

Characteristic of epithelium
Characteristic of Epithelium

  • cells close together, some connected by cell junctions

  • top layer exposed to exterior of body or inside of cavity (apical layer)

  • lower surface connected to a Basement Membrane (BM)

  • is avascular (no direct blood supply)

  • able to regenerate if well nourished

Classification of epithelium
Classification of Epithelium



>1 layer cells

  • 1 layer cells

Shape classification of epithelium
Shape Classification of Epithelium




  • “fried-egg” shape

Shape classification of epithelium1
Shape Classification of Epithelium


Name the shape:

  • tall, rectangular shape

Simple epithelium
Simple Epithelium

  • Functions:

    • Absorption

    • Secretion

    • Filtration

Simple squamous epithelium
Simple Squamous Epithelium

  • thin layer squamous cells resting on BM

  • cells close together (think floor tiles)

  • forms membranes where filtration or rapid diffusion necessary (lungs, kidneys)

  • forms serous membranes or serosa : moist, shiny membranes that line ventral body cavities and covers organ in them

Simple squamous epithelium1
Simple Squamous Epithelium

Simple cuboidal epithelium
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

  • 1 layer cuboidal cells on BM

  • found in glands, ducts, kidney tubules, covers ovaries

Simplecolumnar epithelium
SimpleColumnar Epithelium

  • 1 layer columnar cells packed closely together

  • interspersed with Goblet Cells which make & release mucus

  • lines GI tract from stomach  anus

  • forms mucosae (mucous membranes) that line body cavities open to exterior of body

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium

  • appears to have multiple layers but only has 1

  • all cells attached to BM but not all cells reach apical surface (top)

  • mainly does absorption & secretion

  • 2 varieties:

  • Ciliated

    • in lining of trachea

  • Nonciliated

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium

Pseudostratified nonciliated columnar epithelium
PseudostratifiedNonciliatedColumnar Epithelium

Stratified epithelium
Stratified Epithelium

  • >1 layer of cells, epithelium named for shape of top layer

  • more durable than simple epithelium

  • primary function is protection

Stratified squamous epithelium
Stratified Squamous Epithelium

  • #1 stratified epithelium in body

  • 2 varieties:

  • keratinized

  • nonkeratinized

    • Keratin: tough, insoluble protein found in hair, nails, & epidermis

Stratified squamous epithelium1
Stratified Squamous Epithelium



Stratified cuboidal epithelium
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium

  • 2 or more layers with top layer cuboidal

Transitional epithelium
Transitional Epithelium

  • “transitions” from 1 shape to another

  • found in urinary bladder, ureters, urethra

  • when vol of urine high epitheliumis stretched and epithelium looks like squamous cells

  • when vol of urine low cells appear dome-shaped, cuboidal

Stratified columnar epithelium
Stratified Columnar Epithelium

  • found in salivary ducts

Connective tissue ct
Connective Tissue (CT)

  • connects things

  • is everywhere in body

  • #1 tissue type for amount and distribution

Connective tissue characteristics
Connective Tissue Characteristics

  • most CT well vascularized

    • except:

      • ligaments, tendons poor blood supply

      • cartilage is avascular

  • make extracellular matrix (in varying amounts)

Extracellular matrix
Extracellular Matrix

  • 2 main elements:

  • structureless ground substance

    • water

    • adhesive proteins (glues everything together)

    • charged polysaccharides (trap water) control viscosity of the CT

  • fibers

    • collagen: #1 protein in body

    • elastic

    • reticular

Connective tissues functions
Connective Tissues Functions

  • protection

  • support

  • binding substances together

  • absorption of large amounts of water (ground substance)

Types of connective tissues
Types of Connective Tissues

  • Bone

  • Cartilage

  • Dense CT

  • Loose CT

  • Blood


  • aka osseous tissue

  • few cells surrounded by hard matrix

    • calcium salts

  • due to its hardness has exceptional ability to protect & support


  • more flexible than bone(also not as hard)

  • Types:

  • Hyaline Cartilage

    • matrix is glassy, blue-white

    • found: ends of long bones, larynx, fetal skeleton

  • Elastic Cartilage

    • external ear

  • Fibrocartilage

    • very compressible, forms discs in vertebral column

Dense ct
Dense CT

  • matrix: collagen fibers main ingredient + fibroblasts (make collagen)

  • function: strength

  • found:

  • tendons

    • attach muscle to bone

  • Ligaments

    • connect bone to bone

Dense ct1
Dense CT

  • Ligaments:

  • Tendons:

Loose ct
Loose CT

  • softer, more cellular, fewer fibers than most other CT

  • Types:

  • Areolar CT

  • Adipose Tissue

  • Reticular CT

Areolar ct
Areolar CT

  • “cobwebby”

  • diffusely distributed thru out body

  • layer under all mucous membranes (lamina propria)

  • Functions:

  • cushions & protects

  • holds things together

  • reservoir of water (where water held when injured area becomes edematous)

Adipose tissue
Adipose Tissue

  • aka fat

  • adipocytes =fat cells

    • “signet ring”

  • found :

    • subcutaneous layer beneath skin

    • around kidneys, eyeballs

Reticular ct
Reticular CT

  • reticular cells which make reticular fibers (finer than collagen)

  • forms: stroma: internal framework that supports ie. Stroma in lymph nodes support lymphocytes


  • blood cells in fluid matrix (plasma)

  • Function:

    • carries nutrients, gases, wastes, hormones etc. to/from cells

  • Plasma:

    • fibers: soluble proteins become visible during blood clotting

Muscle tissue
Muscle Tissue

  • specialized to contract  produce motion

  • cells called muscle fibers

  • Types:

  • Skeletal

  • Cardiac

  • Smooth

Skeletal muscle
Skeletal Muscle

  • striated & voluntary

  • most attached to bones

    • contraction causes bone to move

Cardiac muscle
Cardiac Muscle

  • striated, involuntary

  • found only in the heart

  • cardiac muscle fibers have gaps between them (called intercalated discs) so conduction of nerve impulse is quicker

Smooth muscle tissue
Smooth Muscle Tissue

  • no striations, involuntary

  • found: w/in tubes &hollow organs, iris

  • peristalsis: contractions of smooth muscle w/in esophagus large intestine

Nervous tissue
Nervous Tissue

  • found in brain, spinal cord, nerves

  • nerve cells called neurons

  • irritability & conductivity

    • neurons receive & conduct nerve impulses


  • cells that support neurons

    • astrocytes

    • oligodendrocytes

    • ependymal cells

    • microglia

    • Schwann cells

    • satellite cells

Wound healing
Wound Healing

  • Inflammation:

  • nonspecific, generalized response aimed at preventing further injury

  • Immune Response:

  • specific response aimed at specific invader

Wound healing1
Wound Healing

  • Regeneration

    • replacement of destroyed tissue by same cells

    • repair appears like normal tissue

  • Fibrosis

    • repair by dense, fibrous CT

    • ?Regeneration or Fibrosis?

      • type of tissue

      • severity of injury

3 stages of tissue injury
3 Stages of Tissue Injury

  • Leaky Capillaries

  • clotting proteins enter injured area & form clot

  • bleeding stops & clot holds edges of wound together

  • clot protects injured area from contamination(infection, dirt)

  • clot dries  scab

2. Granulation Tissue Forms

  • is a delicate pink tissue

  • mostly capillaries (friable)

  • contains phagocytes (eat up clot & fibroblasts that synthesize collagen which forms scar)

3. Surface epithelium regenerates

  • grows from edges  center

  • scar depends on depth & severity of wound

Regeneration varies by tissue type
Regeneration varies by tissue type

  • Regeneration goes well in epithelial tissues and fibrous CT & bone

  • Muscle regenerates poorly

  • Nervous tissue replaced by scar tissue

Embryonic development of tissues
Embryonic Development of Tissues

  • 3 primary germ layers formed from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst (7-14 days after fertilization)

3 primary germ layers
3 Primary Germ Layers

  • Ectoderm  nervous system & epidermis

  • Endoderm mucosa & glands

  • Mesoderm  everything else

Normal aging process
Normal Aging Process

  • uncertain what causes aging process to start

    • chemical or environmental insults

    • aging “clock”

Tissue changes with aging
Tissue Changes with Aging

  • Epithelial: membranes thin, skin less elastic, glands secrete less

  • CT: bones porous, tissue repair slower

  • Muscle Tissue: muscles atrophy

  • Nervous Tissue: nervous tissue atrophies