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The Home Front. How American citizens waged war at home and supported their loved ones abroad. Rationing. Equal distribution of available resources or using sparingly. How it worked: B ased on number of people in family S pecific things, specific duration Price ceilings

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the home front

The Home Front

How American citizens waged war at home and supported their loved ones abroad.

rationing
Rationing
  • Equal distribution of available resources or using sparingly.
  • How it worked:
    • Based on number of people in family
    • Specific things, specific duration
    • Price ceilings
      • Maximum price set by government
    • Ration stamp AND money
  • What was rationed:
    • Sugar (1st)
    • Coffee
    • Meat
    • Butter
    • Tires
    • Gas
    • Nylons
    • Make-up
    • Clothing
civic duties

Victory Gardens

    • 20 million+ planted
    • 9-10 million tons
      • 50% of total production
    • People stopped growing these gardens at wars end
    • Canning/other forms of preservation
Civic Duties
  • V-mail
    • Paper was in short supply
    • Long time, heavy
    • Only source of contact
      • VERY important
      • So….
        • Go to Post Office get special card
        • Write and return
        • Photographed
        • Film sent overseas
          • Lighter!
        • The pictures were printed and mailed
  • Families with men in the War put stars in their windows representing the number serving.
    • Blue for active
    • Gold for lost in action
civic duties continued
Civic Duties Continued…
  • Conservation and Recycling
    • Metal (car bumpers to bottle caps to lipstick cases)
      • Steel and aluminum
      • Collected in “Scrap Drives” – often by young boys
    • Paper
    • Gas/Oil
    • Rubber and Tin
    • Cooking fats
    • Silk and Nylon
war bonds
War Bonds
  • Defense Bonds first
  • War Bonds after Pearl Harbor
  • $25
  • Stamps forsmaller amounts
    • collected
    • Children and Adults
    • $25 after 10 years = $25.73
  • Sold everywhere
    • In towns – Girl and Boy Scouts
    • By celebrities and sports leagues
      • Exhibition games, selling kisses, radio-thons
  • Total $185.7 BILLION
    • Over ½ population buys them
    • Helps fund the War Effort and promote Saving!
women minorities in workplace
Women & Minorities in Workplace
  • Industry increasing, unemployment decreasing
    • Manpower surplus, Severe shortage in manpower
    • Men to War – Jobs replaced
  • Private Employers/Government encouraged women/minorities to work
    • 750,000 African Americas migrated to N. and W. industrial cities
  • 1940:12 million women (1/4) in workforce
  • War End: 18 million (1/3) in workforce
  • Where did they work?
    • Riveters and Welders
    • Weapons testers
    • Volunteer Firefighters
    • Factory workers
    • Seamstresses making military clothing
    • Clerical positions
      • 3 million in the War industry – remainder in more typical jobs.
propaganda
Propaganda
  • War posters and Video Newsreels
  • Office of War Information (OWI)
  • Aimed at all aspects of American society
    • Women, Children, Minorities
  • Promoted Democracy, War Aims, Ideals
  • Bring American People together
  • Support War
  • Helped by new technology and media
japanese internment
Japanese Internment
  • FDR Executive Order 9066
    • Authorizing mass incarceration
  • Around 130,000 Japanese-Americans interned
    • 2/3rds are American citizens, ½ are children
    • Germans and Italians Americans too
    • Forced to either leave behind or sell for virtually nothing all of their possessions, homes, and businesses/farms
  • President Reagan issues Reparations
    • $20,000 to surviving detainees
  • President Bush, Sr. issues an apology
organization volunteerism
Organization & Volunteerism
  • Civil Defense
    • Air raid wardens
    • Fire and Police Auxiliaries
    • Black-out monitors
    • Organized War Bond sales
    • Collection drives for scrap metal and other products
    • Rolled bandages, knit socks, etc.
  • Red Cross
  • Victory Corps
  • Volunteer Ambulance drivers
pop culture
Pop- Culture
  • Tattoos
    • Common on servicemen
  • Pin-ups
    • Images sent to soldiers
      • Hollywood starlets and “hometown” girls
  • Movies and Radio
    • ¾ Newsreels showed military hostilities/war related info
    • FDR fireside chats continue thru WWII
          • Heavy censorship
          • At Movies:
            • 2 feature films
            • Serial (like TV)
            • Previews
            • Cartoons
            • Newsreels
fun facts
Fun Facts!!!
  • Copper and Nickel get removed from money!!!
  • Women started playing in major league sports
    • Girls’s Professional Baseball League
      • (Movie: A League of their Own)
    • Celebrities and Sports Teams would put on exhibitions to help sell war bonds!
  • Clark Cable and Humphrey Bogart, both famous Hollywood actors, join the military and go to War.
  • Superman did not join the War, because they were afraid it would make the War look too easy.
  • Captain America – 1944 – In red and white tights to do battle with the Nazi’s!
  • Wonder Woman too!
  • USO organized many functions for soldiers
    • Dances, coffee and donut socials, and shows
    • My Grandmother and Grandfather met at one of the dances!
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