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The Home Front. How American citizens waged war at home and supported their loved ones abroad. Rationing. Equal distribution of available resources or using sparingly. How it worked: B ased on number of people in family S pecific things, specific duration Price ceilings

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The home front

The Home Front

How American citizens waged war at home and supported their loved ones abroad.


Rationing
Rationing

  • Equal distribution of available resources or using sparingly.

  • How it worked:

    • Based on number of people in family

    • Specific things, specific duration

    • Price ceilings

      • Maximum price set by government

    • Ration stamp AND money

  • What was rationed:

    • Sugar (1st)

    • Coffee

    • Meat

    • Butter

    • Tires

    • Gas

    • Nylons

    • Make-up

    • Clothing


Civic duties

  • Victory Gardens

    • 20 million+ planted

    • 9-10 million tons

      • 50% of total production

    • People stopped growing these gardens at wars end

    • Canning/other forms of preservation

Civic Duties

  • V-mail

    • Paper was in short supply

    • Long time, heavy

    • Only source of contact

      • VERY important

      • So….

        • Go to Post Office get special card

        • Write and return

        • Photographed

        • Film sent overseas

          • Lighter!

        • The pictures were printed and mailed

  • Families with men in the War put stars in their windows representing the number serving.

    • Blue for active

    • Gold for lost in action


Civic duties continued
Civic Duties Continued…

  • Conservation and Recycling

    • Metal (car bumpers to bottle caps to lipstick cases)

      • Steel and aluminum

      • Collected in “Scrap Drives” – often by young boys

    • Paper

    • Gas/Oil

    • Rubber and Tin

    • Cooking fats

    • Silk and Nylon


War bonds
War Bonds

  • Defense Bonds first

  • War Bonds after Pearl Harbor

  • $25

  • Stamps forsmaller amounts

    • collected

    • Children and Adults

    • $25 after 10 years = $25.73

  • Sold everywhere

    • In towns – Girl and Boy Scouts

    • By celebrities and sports leagues

      • Exhibition games, selling kisses, radio-thons

  • Total $185.7 BILLION

    • Over ½ population buys them

    • Helps fund the War Effort and promote Saving!


Women minorities in workplace
Women & Minorities in Workplace

  • Industry increasing, unemployment decreasing

    • Manpower surplus, Severe shortage in manpower

    • Men to War – Jobs replaced

  • Private Employers/Government encouraged women/minorities to work

    • 750,000 African Americas migrated to N. and W. industrial cities

  • 1940:12 million women (1/4) in workforce

  • War End: 18 million (1/3) in workforce

  • Where did they work?

    • Riveters and Welders

    • Weapons testers

    • Volunteer Firefighters

    • Factory workers

    • Seamstresses making military clothing

    • Clerical positions

      • 3 million in the War industry – remainder in more typical jobs.


Propaganda
Propaganda

  • War posters and Video Newsreels

  • Office of War Information (OWI)

  • Aimed at all aspects of American society

    • Women, Children, Minorities

  • Promoted Democracy, War Aims, Ideals

  • Bring American People together

  • Support War

  • Helped by new technology and media


Japanese internment
Japanese Internment

  • FDR Executive Order 9066

    • Authorizing mass incarceration

  • Around 130,000 Japanese-Americans interned

    • 2/3rds are American citizens, ½ are children

    • Germans and Italians Americans too

    • Forced to either leave behind or sell for virtually nothing all of their possessions, homes, and businesses/farms

  • President Reagan issues Reparations

    • $20,000 to surviving detainees

  • President Bush, Sr. issues an apology


Organization volunteerism
Organization & Volunteerism

  • Civil Defense

    • Air raid wardens

    • Fire and Police Auxiliaries

    • Black-out monitors

    • Organized War Bond sales

    • Collection drives for scrap metal and other products

    • Rolled bandages, knit socks, etc.

  • Red Cross

  • Victory Corps

  • Volunteer Ambulance drivers


Pop culture
Pop- Culture

  • Tattoos

    • Common on servicemen

  • Pin-ups

    • Images sent to soldiers

      • Hollywood starlets and “hometown” girls

  • Movies and Radio

    • ¾ Newsreels showed military hostilities/war related info

    • FDR fireside chats continue thru WWII

      • Heavy censorship

      • At Movies:

        • 2 feature films

        • Serial (like TV)

        • Previews

        • Cartoons

        • Newsreels


Fun facts
Fun Facts!!!

  • Copper and Nickel get removed from money!!!

  • Women started playing in major league sports

    • Girls’s Professional Baseball League

      • (Movie: A League of their Own)

    • Celebrities and Sports Teams would put on exhibitions to help sell war bonds!

  • Clark Cable and Humphrey Bogart, both famous Hollywood actors, join the military and go to War.

  • Superman did not join the War, because they were afraid it would make the War look too easy.

  • Captain America – 1944 – In red and white tights to do battle with the Nazi’s!

  • Wonder Woman too!

  • USO organized many functions for soldiers

    • Dances, coffee and donut socials, and shows

    • My Grandmother and Grandfather met at one of the dances!


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