Solutions
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 31

Solutions PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 103 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Brass = solution. Coffee = solution. Solutions. Chapter 15. Jayhawk says: Chemistry is awesome! Go KU!. The Triple “S” – solution, solvent, solute. Solution: a homogeneous mixture in which the components are uniformly intermingled.

Download Presentation

Solutions

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Solutions

Brass = solution

Coffee = solution

Solutions

Chapter 15

Jayhawk says:

Chemistry is

awesome! Go KU!


The triple s solution solvent solute

The Triple “S” – solution, solvent, solute

  • Solution: a homogeneous mixture in which the components are uniformly intermingled.

  • Solvent: the dissolving medium; substance present in the largest amount

  • Solute: substance dissolved in a solvent

Jayhawk says: Did you know solutions with water as the solvent are

Aqueous solutions?

Solute+Solvent


The triple s solution solvent solute1

The Triple “S” – solution, solvent, solute

  • When a solid is being dissolved in a liquid to form a solution, three factors affect the speed of the dissolving process; Surface area, stirring and temperature.

Jayhawk says: Did you know that the Jayhawks were the National Champions in basketball in 2008?

Solute+Solvent


Solubility

Solubility

  • Solids

  • Gases


Solutions

The most commonly used expression of concentration is molarity.

Molarity

Jayhawksays:

Rock Chalk

Jayhawk!!

Go KU!!


Solutions

M = moles of solute

liter of solution

Examples:

#1) A solution contains 0.90 mol of NaCl in 0.50 L of water. Calculate

the M of this solution.

0.90 mol NaCl = 1.8 M

0.50 L H2O

Molarity

Jayhawksays:

Remember to convert to liters if given milliliters.

#2) A solution contains 1.2 g of

Magnesium chloride in 100 mL of

Water. Calculate the M.


Solutions

Answer:

1.2g MgCl2 x 1 mol MgCl2 = 0.013mol MgCl2

93.2 g MgCl2

0.013 mol MgCl2= 0.13 M

0.100 L H2O

Molarity

Jayhawksays:

Remember significant figure rules.


Solutions

Another Example!!

A 0.40 M solution of glucose contains 8 moles of the solute. What is the volume of this solution?

Molarity

Jayhawksays:

Chemistry RULES!!


Solutions

Answer:

Molarity = mol solute

L of soln

So, L (volume) of soln = mol solute

Molarity

Molarity

L = 8 mol

0.40 M

Jayhawksays:

Remember significant figure rules.

Volume = 20 L


Solutions

  • Molality is the number of moles of a given substance per kilogram of solvent.

  • m = Moles of solute

    • Kg of Solvent

  • "one molal solution", i.e. a solution which contains one

  • mole of the solute per 1000 grams of the solvent.

  • Molality

    Jayhawksays:

    Chemistry is my favorite class!!


    Solutions

    A solution is prepared by dissolving 0.500 mol of NaCl in 1.000 Kg of H20. Calculate the molality.

    A solution contains 1.5 mol of NaCl in 100. g of H20. Calculate the molality.

    Molality

    Jayhawksays:

    Who did the Jayhawks beat in the Orange Bowl last year?


    Solutions

    How many g of potassium iodide must be dissolved in 500. g of water to give a 0.060 molal solution?

    Molality

    Jayhawksays:

    You need to know molality so we can make ice cream.


    Mole fraction

    Mole Fraction

    • Ratio of the number of moles of solute to number of moles of solute and solvent (solution)


    Solutions

    • To concentrate a solution, one must add more solute, or reduce the amount of solvent (for instance, by selective evaporation).

    • By contrast, to dilute a solution, one must add more solvent, or reduce the amount of solute.

    • The # of moles of solute stays constant. More H20 is added which increases the volume while decreasing the Molarity.

    Dilution

    Light, and able to see through, (lightly concentrated)


    Solutions

    • Dilution Equation:

    • M(1)V(1) = M(2)V(2)

    • M(1)V(1) are the initial conditions

    • M(2)V(2) are the final conditions (dilute)

    Dilution


    Solutions

    How would you prepare 100 mL of 0.40 M MgSO4 from a stock solution of 2.0 M MgSO4?

    Dilution


    Solutions

    You have 1000 mL of 1.0 M HCl in your stockroom. You need 15 mL of 0.02 M solution for a lab. How much of the original solution will you need to make this solution?

    Dilution


    Solutions

    • Dilution Equation:

    • M(1)V(1) = M(2)V(2)

    • M(1)V(1) are the initial conditions

    • M(2)V(2) are the final conditions (dilute)

    Dilution


    Solutions

    Definitions to Know

    • Saturated Solution

    • Unsaturated Solution

    • Supersaturated Solution

    Jayhawk says: I hope you learned something in this chapter, and remember, Rock Chalk Jayhawk!


    Solutions

    Percent Volume

    - volume of solute x 100

    volume of soln

    - used for liquids dissolved within liquids

    Calculate the % V of isoprpopanol when 20. mL of the alcohol

    Is diluted with water for a final volume of 100. mL

    A soln has a total V of 1000 mL after water was added to 25 mL

    of ethanol. What is the % V of the ethanol soln?

    Jayhawk says: Listen

    up class, it’s time for

    an example.


    Solutions

    Mass Percent

    • mass of solute x 100

    • mass of soln

    • grams of solution = grams of solute + grams of solvent

    A hydrochloric acid soln was made by adding 59.26 g

    of HCl to 100 g H20. Calculate the % mass of HCl

    in the soln.

    Calculate the mass % of octane when 10.5 g C8H18

    is mixed with 40.0 g of C6H14.Octane is the solute.

    Jayhawk says: How

    many more days of

    school do we have?

    Answer on next page.


    Solutions

    Percent Mass/ Volume

    • mass of solute x 100

    • volume of soln

    • most often seen with g/mL units, but g/L are o.k. (make sure to label)

    A 100 mL soln containing 7.0 g of MgCl2 is what %

    mass/volume of MgCl2?

    Jayhawk says: 45,

    After today!! Yippee!!


    Solutions

    Solution Composition

    • Calculating ion concentration from Molarity

    • Solute concentration is always written in terms of the solute form before it dissolves.

    • Now, we need to account for ions in soln, dissociation of ions when dissolved.

    Jayhawk says: What

    is in that beaker of

    magnesium chloride

    solution?


    Solutions

    Solution Composition

    • Needed

      • Solubility Tables

      • Balanced Equations

      • Net Ionic Equations

      • M = [ ]

    Jayhawk says: Don’t

    forget to always check

    your solubility table!


    Give the of all ions in the soln below

    Give the [ ] of all ions in the soln below

    • 0.50 M Co(NO3)2

    • Dissociation Rxn:

    • Determine M of each ion:


    Give the of all ions in the soln below1

    Give the [ ] of all ions in the soln below

    • 1.0 M FeCl3

    • Dissociation Rxn:

    • Determine M of each ion:


    How many moles of ag ions are present in 25 ml of a 0 75 m agno 3 soln

    How many moles of Ag+ ions are present in 25 mL of a 0.75 M AgNO3 soln?

    • Unk:

    • Given:

    • Dissoc. Rxn:


    Solutions

    Solution Stoichiometry

    • Incorporating Stoichiometry, road maps, with new soln. info.

    • Use M, molarity: mol , L as a conversion factor between moles and Liters

      • L mol

  • Never use 22.4 L . This is for gases only!!

    • mol

  • Many types of problems . . .

    • Always start by writing a balanced equation

    • Make a road map

    • Write givens and unknown

  • Jayhawk says: 22.4 L

    is for gases only!!


    Solutions

    Solution Stoichiometry

    1.0 L of 0.120 M calcium nitrate reacts with 3.0 L 0.050 M sodium chromate. What mass of the precipitate will form?

    • Rxn:

    • Net Ionic:

    • Road Map:

    • Stoich:

    Jayhawk says: This is

    a limiting reactant

    problem. Remember

    those?!!


    Solutions

    Solution Stoichiometry

    What volume of 2.50 M soln of silver nitrate is needed to completely precipitate out 4.2 g of silver chloride?

    • Rxn:

    • Net Ionic:

    • Road Map:

    • Stoich:

    Jayhawk says: Don’t

    Forget, TEST

    Next Class!!


    Solutions

    Solution Stoichiometry

    Ammonium phosphate and calcium chloride react. 0.15 g of the ppt forms from excess (NH4)3PO4 and 416 mL of a CaCl2 soln. What must have been the [ ], in M of the CaCl2 soln?

    • Rxn:

    • Net Ionic:

    • Road Map:

    • Stoich:

    Jayhawk says: Study,

    Study, Study!!


  • Login