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# Solutions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Brass = solution. Coffee = solution. Solutions. Chapter 15. Jayhawk says: Chemistry is awesome! Go KU!. The Triple “S” – solution, solvent, solute. Solution: a homogeneous mixture in which the components are uniformly intermingled.

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Coffee = solution

### Solutions

Chapter 15

Jayhawk says:

Chemistry is

awesome! Go KU!

The Triple “S” – solution, solvent, solute

• Solution: a homogeneous mixture in which the components are uniformly intermingled.

• Solvent: the dissolving medium; substance present in the largest amount

• Solute: substance dissolved in a solvent

Jayhawk says: Did you know solutions with water as the solvent are

Aqueous solutions?

Solute + Solvent

The Triple “S” – solution, solvent, solute

• When a solid is being dissolved in a liquid to form a solution, three factors affect the speed of the dissolving process; Surface area, stirring and temperature.

Jayhawk says: Did you know that the Jayhawks were the National Champions in basketball in 2008?

Solute + Solvent

• Solids

• Gases

Molarity

Jayhawksays:

Rock Chalk

Jayhawk!!

Go KU!!

M = moles of solute

liter of solution

Examples:

#1) A solution contains 0.90 mol of NaCl in 0.50 L of water. Calculate

the M of this solution.

0.90 mol NaCl = 1.8 M

0.50 L H2O

Molarity

Jayhawksays:

Remember to convert to liters if given milliliters.

#2) A solution contains 1.2 g of

Magnesium chloride in 100 mL of

Water. Calculate the M.

1.2g MgCl2 x 1 mol MgCl2 = 0.013mol MgCl2

93.2 g MgCl2

0.013 mol MgCl2= 0.13 M

0.100 L H2O

Molarity

Jayhawksays:

Remember significant figure rules.

A 0.40 M solution of glucose contains 8 moles of the solute. What is the volume of this solution?

Molarity

Jayhawksays:

Chemistry RULES!!

Molarity = mol solute

L of soln

So, L (volume) of soln = mol solute

Molarity

Molarity

L = 8 mol

0.40 M

Jayhawksays:

Remember significant figure rules.

Volume = 20 L

• "one molal solution", i.e. a solution which contains one

• mole of the solute per 1000 grams of the solvent.

• Molality

Jayhawksays:

Chemistry is my favorite class!!

A solution is prepared by dissolving 0.500 mol of NaCl in 1.000 Kg of H20. Calculate the molality.

A solution contains 1.5 mol of NaCl in 100. g of H20. Calculate the molality.

Molality

Jayhawksays:

Who did the Jayhawks beat in the Orange Bowl last year?

How many g of potassium iodide must be dissolved in 500. g of water to give a 0.060 molal solution?

Molality

Jayhawksays:

You need to know molality so we can make ice cream.

Mole Fraction of water to give a 0.060 molal solution?

• Ratio of the number of moles of solute to number of moles of solute and solvent (solution)

• To of water to give a 0.060 molal solution?concentrate a solution, one must add more solute, or reduce the amount of solvent (for instance, by selective evaporation).

• By contrast, to dilute a solution, one must add more solvent, or reduce the amount of solute.

• The # of moles of solute stays constant. More H20 is added which increases the volume while decreasing the Molarity.

Dilution

Light, and able to see through, (lightly concentrated)

• Dilution Equation: of water to give a 0.060 molal solution?

• M(1)V(1) = M(2)V(2)

• M(1)V(1) are the initial conditions

• M(2)V(2) are the final conditions (dilute)

Dilution

How would you prepare 100 mL of 0.40 of water to give a 0.060 molal solution?M MgSO4 from a stock solution of 2.0 M MgSO4?

Dilution

You have 1000 mL of 1.0 M HCl in your stockroom. You need 15 mL of 0.02 M solution for a lab. How much of the original solution will you need to make this solution?

Dilution

• Dilution Equation: mL of 0.02 M solution for a lab. How much of the original solution will you need to make this solution?

• M(1)V(1) = M(2)V(2)

• M(1)V(1) are the initial conditions

• M(2)V(2) are the final conditions (dilute)

Dilution

Definitions to Know mL of 0.02 M solution for a lab. How much of the original solution will you need to make this solution?

• Saturated Solution

• Unsaturated Solution

• Supersaturated Solution

Jayhawk says: I hope you learned something in this chapter, and remember, Rock Chalk Jayhawk!

Percent Volume mL of 0.02 M solution for a lab. How much of the original solution will you need to make this solution?

- volume of solute x 100

volume of soln

- used for liquids dissolved within liquids

Calculate the % V of isoprpopanol when 20. mL of the alcohol

Is diluted with water for a final volume of 100. mL

A soln has a total V of 1000 mL after water was added to 25 mL

of ethanol. What is the % V of the ethanol soln?

Jayhawk says: Listen

up class, it’s time for

an example.

Mass Percent mL of 0.02 M solution for a lab. How much of the original solution will you need to make this solution?

• mass of solute x 100

• mass of soln

• grams of solution = grams of solute + grams of solvent

of HCl to 100 g H20. Calculate the % mass of HCl

in the soln.

Calculate the mass % of octane when 10.5 g C8H18

is mixed with 40.0 g of C6H14.Octane is the solute.

Jayhawk says: How

many more days of

school do we have?

Percent Mass/ Volume mL of 0.02 M solution for a lab. How much of the original solution will you need to make this solution?

• mass of solute x 100

• volume of soln

• most often seen with g/mL units, but g/L are o.k. (make sure to label)

A 100 mL soln containing 7.0 g of MgCl2 is what %

mass/volume of MgCl2?

Jayhawk says: 45,

After today!! Yippee!!

Solution Composition mL of 0.02 M solution for a lab. How much of the original solution will you need to make this solution?

• Calculating ion concentration from Molarity

• Solute concentration is always written in terms of the solute form before it dissolves.

• Now, we need to account for ions in soln, dissociation of ions when dissolved.

Jayhawk says: What

is in that beaker of

magnesium chloride

solution?

Solution Composition mL of 0.02 M solution for a lab. How much of the original solution will you need to make this solution?

• Needed

• Solubility Tables

• Balanced Equations

• Net Ionic Equations

• M = [ ]

Jayhawk says: Don’t

forget to always check

Give the [ ] of all ions in the soln below mL of 0.02 M solution for a lab. How much of the original solution will you need to make this solution?

• 0.50 M Co(NO3)2

• Dissociation Rxn:

• Determine M of each ion:

Give the [ ] of all ions in the soln below mL of 0.02 M solution for a lab. How much of the original solution will you need to make this solution?

• 1.0 M FeCl3

• Dissociation Rxn:

• Determine M of each ion:

How many moles of Ag mL of 0.02 M solution for a lab. How much of the original solution will you need to make this solution?+ ions are present in 25 mL of a 0.75 M AgNO3 soln?

• Unk:

• Given:

• Dissoc. Rxn:

Solution Stoichiometry mL of 0.02 M solution for a lab. How much of the original solution will you need to make this solution?

• Incorporating Stoichiometry, road maps, with new soln. info.

• Use M, molarity: mol , L as a conversion factor between moles and Liters

• L mol

• Never use 22.4 L . This is for gases only!!

• mol

• Many types of problems . . .

• Always start by writing a balanced equation

• Write givens and unknown

• Jayhawk says: 22.4 L

is for gases only!!

Solution Stoichiometry mL of 0.02 M solution for a lab. How much of the original solution will you need to make this solution?

1.0 L of 0.120 M calcium nitrate reacts with 3.0 L 0.050 M sodium chromate. What mass of the precipitate will form?

• Rxn:

• Net Ionic:

• Stoich:

Jayhawk says: This is

a limiting reactant

problem. Remember

those?!!

Solution Stoichiometry mL of 0.02 M solution for a lab. How much of the original solution will you need to make this solution?

What volume of 2.50 M soln of silver nitrate is needed to completely precipitate out 4.2 g of silver chloride?

• Rxn:

• Net Ionic:

• Stoich:

Jayhawk says: Don’t

Forget, TEST

Next Class!!

Solution Stoichiometry mL of 0.02 M solution for a lab. How much of the original solution will you need to make this solution?

Ammonium phosphate and calcium chloride react. 0.15 g of the ppt forms from excess (NH4)3PO4 and 416 mL of a CaCl2 soln. What must have been the [ ], in M of the CaCl2 soln?

• Rxn:

• Net Ionic: