Review Session Review Test #3. History, Approaches, Methods, Biological Influences, Sensation & Perception, States of Consciousness AP Psychology Forest Lake High School. History & Approaches Question #1.
History, Approaches, Methods, Biological Influences, Sensation & Perception,States of Consciousness
Forest Lake High School
Research in the area of evolutionary psychology might rely heavily on research from which of the following psychological schools of thought?
E– Evolutionary Psychology necessarily involves discussions of genetics and how genes are passed from one generation to another. Biological psychologists are also involved in this area of research.
Modern psychologists might criticize Freud’s original psychoanalytic theory for which of the following?
D. Some of Freud’s ideas about the connection between personality and human behavior (such as the id, ego, and superego) were difficult to establish or falsify with empirical data.
Most experimental psychology research in the 1940s through 1960s was based on which psychological perspective?
B. Although Freudian psychoanalysis was still relatively common in the psychological community, it was never commonly used by experimental psychologists (primarily because Freudian psychoanalysis was never well-suited to experimental validation). Behaviorist studies, such as operant conditioning studies involving rats or pigeons performing behaviors for positive reinforcement, dominated experimental psychology during this time period.
What was the major difference between Wilhelm Wundt’s ideas about thinking and behavior and the thinking of earlier philosophers?
E. The primary difference between Wundt and the earlier thinkers who investigated human thought and behavior was that Wundt tried to establish his theories with empirical evidence gathered in a laboratory setting.
Dr. Shiffrin theorizes that stress in children can be caused by excessive levels of homework. If she were to test this idea, what would be her dependent variable?
E – According to the hypothesis, the amount of stress children experience depends upon how much homework they are assigned; hence, stress is the dependent variable. The amount of homework assigned is the independent variable. The age, teachers, and schools of the students are all extraneous variables that would ideally be controlled for in an experiment.
If you were interested in getting an inside look at how teenagers behave when they go to the mall, what would be the best type of study to use?
In Milgram’s obedience study, the dependent variable was operationally defined by
Dimitri invents a new way to assess personality that involves describing the images one sees in a carefully selected set of photographs of clouds. Which type of psychologist is most likely to find such an assessment useful?
E – Dimitri’s cloud test is an example of a projective test. Similar to the TAT and Rorshach tests, it is likely based on the idea that what people project onto ambiguous stimuli provide insight into their personalities.
Correlations are typically graphed using a(n)
A – Correlations are typically graphed using a scatter plot, where one variable is plotted on each axis.
Arshia and Alain are assigned to observe group of nursery school students to see how they negotiate sharing at the block table. Each independently codes the behavior of each student and then they compare their findings to make sure they agree. This process most directly shows a concern for
D – The reason to have the raters compare their ratings is to get a measure of the extent to which they agree or their inter-rater reliability. Even if the raters do agree, it is possible that their coding reflects a low level of validity or accuracy – in other words, they may agree but in fact be measuring something other than sharing.
Which study would pose the greatest challenge to the ethical guideline that participation in research be voluntary?
Arvind compared the speed of two groups of rats running through a maze using a t test. Which p value would allow Arvind to conclude with the greatest degree of certainty that the groups of rats performed differently?
A – P stands for the probability that a result occurred by chance; thus, the lower the p value, the greater degree of certainty about one’s results. While .05 is the accepted cutoff for statistically significant results (a.k.a. results that are unlikely to have occurred due to chance), a p value of .01 allows even greater certainty that the results reveal an actual difference between groups.
Cynthia has a group of students take a creativity test. What statistical measure would be most useful to her if she wants to describe how the scores in the distribution compare to one another?
D - The standard deviation is essentially a measure of the average distance of all the scores in a distribution from the mean. The range is also a measure of the variability of scores, but a very rough measure that merely gives the difference between the highest and lowest value with no attention given to the other scores in the distribution. The mean, mode, and median are all measures of central tendency whose values only yield information about how best to categorize the midpoint of a distribution and no information about how the scores in the distribution vary from one another.
A teratogen is most likely to influence the development of which of the following?
D- Fetal alcohol syndrome is the only outcome listed that is likely to be influenced by a chemical that passes from the mother to a developing fetus and impacts development (in this case, alcohol).
A group of researchers selectively breed a group of rats for aggression. Which area of the rat’s brains might the researchers likely focus on when examining the relationship between aggressive behavior and brain anatomy?
B – The amygdala controls basic, primal emotions like aggression, so it is a likely structure for researchers to target for this kind of research.
Which sentence most accurately describes the process of neural transmission?
B - Neural transmission is an electro-chemical process, involving an electrical charge that travels within a neuron and chemicals that pass between neurons across synaptic gaps.
Which type of scan would provide a psychiatrist with the most information about whether a stroke damaged communication between the left and right hemisphere?
E - In order to investigate communication in the brain, the psychiatrist would need to use a scan that provides detailed information about which specific brain areas are active during specific tasks. The fMRI scan is most able to provide this kind of data.
Antipsychotic drugs most directly impact which of the following biological systems?
D – Antipsychotic drugs most directly impact emotions, thinking, and behavior through changing neurotransmitter levels or neurons’ abilities to absorb and use neurotransmitters.
Wolfgang quickly grabbed his cell phone as it fell towards the floor. Which part of his nervous system most directly allowed him to perform this behavior?
A - The somatic nervous system controls our voluntary, skeletal muscles, and is most responsible for this kind of voluntary muscle reaction. The other systems involved may also be activated during this situation, but it is the somatic nervous system that most directly controls this grabbing behavior.
A person who suffers a stroke and can no longer see objects in their left field of vision might have suffered damage to which part of their brain?
D – Objects in our field of vision are normally detected on the right halves of our retinas. This visual information is carried via the optic nerve to our right occipital lobes, so damage in this area might leave us “blind” to objects in our left field of vision.
Which of the following sentences accurately describes a difference between the left and right hemispheres?
C - Few generalizations can be accurately made about differences between the hemispheres because both hemispheres are normally active during almost all cognitive tasks. One of the well established differences between the hemispheres is that the left hemisphere is primarily responsible for spoken language.
A drug that acts as an antagonist for acetylcholine would most likely have what effect?
C. One of the primary functions of acetylcholine is muscle movement, so a drug acts as an antagonist for this neurotransmitter could dramatically impact muscle control.
Which structure in the eye is most responsible for the process of transduction?
C. Transduction is the process of transforming sensations into neural signals. In the eye, this process takes place in the retina, where specialized neurons (rods and cones) changes light waves into neural impulses.
Reaching down and scratching your kneecap in a dark theater probably relies most on which of the following senses?
C - The kinesthetic sense enables us to perceive where different parts of our bodies are located without looking at them. Reaching for our kneecap in a dark theater would depend most on this sense.
Our senses of vision and hearing are similar in a significant way, and different than our senses of taste and smell. What is this significant difference?
B. Vision and hearing are sometimes called “energy” senses, because they involve our senses “absorbing” energy (light or soundwaves) and converting them to neural impulses. Taste and smell are sometimes called “chemical” senses, because they involve these senses absorbing chemicals and converting them to neural signals.
Polly injures her right eye playing basketball and has to wear an eye patch for a month. While she’s wearing the patch over her right eye, which of the following depth cues will Polly NOT be able to use to judge distance?
D. Some depth cues rely on binocular (two eye) vision (“binocular depth cues”). Convergence is one of these kinds of depth cues: we know an object is close to our face when both our eyes try to move together (converge) on an object very close to us. Since one of Polly’s eyes is injured, she would not be able to rely on this binocular depth cue to judge depth.
Deterioration of the stapes (stirrup) bone is likely to cause which of the following?
B. Conduction deafness refers to an inability to hear because sound is not “conducted” from the outside world to the cochlea and auditory cortex (where sound waves are changed into interpretable neural signals). The stapes is an integral part of the conduction process.
Which of the following phenomena are best explained by the opponent-process theory?
A. The opponent-process theory best explains color blindness. The most common kind of color blindness involve “opposite” colors such as red-green and yellow-blue, which fits with the opponent process theory of how color is perceived in the eye by cones.
Which of the following perceptual principles is most applicable to the following situation: art students learning to draw objects from different angles.
C. Shape constancy refers to the ability of our visual perception system to keep “constant” the shape we know an object to be even when we view that object from different angles. Drawing objects from different perspectives would use this ability often and extensively.
Why might the REM stage be called “paradoxical sleep”?
A. During REM, we experience high amplitude and frequency brain waves, sometimes as or more intense than waking brain waves, which is paradoxical because it is a stage of sleep.
Within the context of States of Consciousness research, what does the term tolerance refer to?
B. Tolerance within the context of states of consciousness refers to the increased need for a drug in order to produce the samephysiological effect.
Researchers find that people with rich fantasy lives tend to be more hypnotizable. This research finding most supports which theory of hypnosis?
C. Role theory states that hypnotized individuals are acting out the role of a hypnotized person, and people with rich fantasy lives may be more prone to acting these roles in convincing ways.
Changes in our sleep patterns (the amount of time we spend in each stage of sleep during the night) are most commonly caused by which of the following?
Weather patterns related to daylight exposure
Ultradian and Infradian Rhythms
D. As we age, we spend less time in REM sleep and more time in the other stages of sleep