Pre-Chin Daoism II: Zhuangzi

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Outline. I. The Life of ZhuangziII. Zhuangzi's TeachingIII. A Comparison of Laozi and ZhuangziIV. A Comparison of Zhuangzi and ConfucianismV. Zhuangzi's Style of WritingVI. Zhuangzi's Target AudienceVII. Zhuangzi's daoVIII. The Zhuangzi: The Inner Chapters. Zhuangzi/ Chuang Tzu (399-295B.C.).

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1. Pre-Chin Daoism II????: Zhuangzi??

2. Outline I. The Life of Zhuangzi II. Zhuangzis Teaching III. A Comparison of Laozi and Zhuangzi IV. A Comparison of Zhuangzi and Confucianism V. Zhuangzis Style of Writing VI. Zhuangzis Target Audience VII. Zhuangzis dao VIII. The Zhuangzi: The Inner Chapters

3. Zhuangzi/ Chuang Tzu (399-295B.C.) Zhuangzi has fascinated the Chinese mind. He takes readers to undreamed of lands and stimulates them through conversations of the shadow , the skeleton, and the north wind. He seems to transcend the mundane world, yet he is always in the very depth of daily life. He is quietistic, yet for him life moves on like a galloping horse. He is mystical, but also follows reason as the leading light.

4. I. The Life of Zhuangzi Believed to be a contemporary of Mencius, that is, some 50 years after Confucius. Do not know much about his life. The present Book of Zhuangzi is divided into the Inner, Outer, and the Mixed chapters (??,??,??). It was generally believed that only the Inner chapters were written by Zhuangzi.

5. II. Zhuangzi/ Chuang Tzus Teaching Zhuangzis philosophy: a direct product of his idea of Nature. Nature is not only spontaneity but nature in the state of constant flux and incessant transformation?????? (Z. ch.13). Such a transformation is the universal process that binds all things into one, equalizing all things and all opinions. His model, the Pure/True man ??has pure knowledge?? and he makes this oneness his nature-- he becomes a companion of Nature ?????and does not attempt to interfere with it by imposing the way of man on it.

6. II. Zhuangzi/ Chuang Tzus Teaching: ch 6: The Master???: The True/Pure Man?? (Z. ch.6) The True Man of ancient times knew nothing of loving life, knew nothing of hating death. He emerged without delight; he went back in without a fuss. He came briskly, he went briskly, and that was all. He didnt forget where he began; he didnt try to find out where he would end. He received something and took pleasure in it; he forgot about it and handed it back again. This is what I call not using the mind to repel Dao, not using man to help out Tian. This is what I call the True Man... ????,????,????;????,????;????,???????.????,?????;????,????,????????,?????.?????

7. II. Zhuangzi/ Chuang Tzus Teaching: The Perfect Man?? (Z. ch.7) Do not be an embodier of fame; do not be a storehouse of schemes; do not be an undertaker of projects; do not be a proprietor of wisdom. Embody to the fullest what has no end and wander where there is no trail. Hold on to all that you have received from Tian but do not think you have gotten anything. Be empty, that is all. The Perfect Man uses his mind like a mirrorgoing after nothing, welcoming nothing, responding but not storing. Therefore he can win over things and not hurt himself. ????,????;????,????.????,????;??????,????,????.??????????,????,???????

8. II. Zhuangzi/ Chuang Tzus Teaching: The True/Pure Man?? Comments: The doctrine of identifying life and death as one is not peculiar to Daoism, for it was common among several schools at Zhuangzis time. The point to note is that Daoism never glorifies death, as it is sometimes mistakenly understood. Zhuangzi emphasis: fun/pleasure??

9. II. Zhuangzis Teaching His goal is absolute spiritual emancipation and peace, to be achieved through 1.knowing the capacity and limitations of ones own nature 2. nourishing it 3. adapting it to the universal process of transformation He abandons selfishness of all descriptions, be it fame, wealth, bias, or subjectivity. Having attained enlightenment through the light of Nature, he moves in the realm of great knowledge ?? and profound de??.

10. II. Zhuangzi s Teaching Thus, Zhuangzi is free from any conventional values/traditions. He says of him, Alone he [I] associates with Tian and Earth and spirit, without abandoning or despising things of the world. He does not quarrel over right or wrong and mingles with conventional societyAbove, he roams with the Creator, and below he makes friends with those who transcend life and death and beginning and end. In regard to the essential, he is broad and comprehensive, profound and unrestrained. In regard to the fundamental, he may be said to harmonized all things and penetrated the highest level. However, in his response to change and his understanding of things, his principle is inexhaustible, traceless, dark and obscure, and unfathomable... (Zhuangzi 33) ????????,???????,??????,????? ??????,???????????.????,????,????,????,????????.??,?????????,????,????,????,????.

11. III. A Comparison of Laozi and Zhuangzi The above account is separate from that on Laozi. Although it has been customary to speak of Lao-Zhuang together, actually the practice did not begin until the 5th century. Clearly, just as Mencius did not merely elaborate on Confucius doctrines but presented something new, so Zhuangzi definitely advocated beyond Laozi.

12. III. A Comparison of Laozi and Zhuangzi The dao in Laozi is still worldly, whereas in Zhuangzi it becomes transcendental. Laozi: emphasis the difference between glory/disgrace; strength/weakness and advocates the tender values. Zhuangzi: identifies both ends, ends are cyclical. Laozi: reform yourself according to dao Zhuangzi: to travel beyond the mundane world

13. III. A Comparison of Laozi and Zhuangzi In Zhuangzi, there is a great stress on following ones nature, nourishing it, and adapting it to the environment. That is, a strong emphasis on the individual. The idea of self-transformation takes on a central focus, which presents life and reality as dynamic and ever-changing.

14. IV. A Comparison of Zhuangzi and Confucianism In Zhuangzi, too, differences between Confucianism and Daoism become much sharper. Confucianism: full development of ones nature, fulfilling ones destiny, participation in the creative work of Tian. Zhuangzi: nourishing nature, returning to destiny, enjoying Nature Confucianism: people should transform through education Zhuangzi: leaves transformation to things themselves and accepts such transformation process.

15. V. Zhuangzis style of writing Special style of writing: 1. The pointed or paradoxical anecdote. i.e. an apparently nonsensical remark that jolts the mind into awareness of a truth outside the pale of ordinary logic. 2. The pseudo-logical discussion or debate that starts out sounding completely rational and sober, and ends by reducing language to a gibbering inanity. E.g. the first two sections of his books Full of humor & highly poetic, which is rarely employed by other Chinese philosophers. A interesting book to read, though the language it employed is not easy.

16. VI. Zhunagzis Target Audience Unlike Confucianism, which target the majority; Zhuangzis teachings is for the minority and like most mystical philosophers, it is seldom been fully understood. Some chapters are still controversial even after 2000 years of interpretation and discussion. Most ancient Chinese thinkers address to the political or intellectual elite; Zhuangzis teaching addressed to the spiritual elite.

17. VII. Zhuangzis dao Dao has its reality and its signs but is without action or form. You can hand it down but you cannot receive it; you can get it but you cannot see it. It is its own source, its own root. Before tian and earth existed it was there, firm from ancient times. It gave spirituality to the spirits and to God (ch. 6) ??,????,????;??????,??????;????,????,????? Not much different from that of Laozi

18. VIII. The Zhuangzi: Inner Chapters Essentially, all the philosophers of ancient China addressed themselves to the same problem: how is man to live in a world dominated by chaos, suffering, and absurdity? Nearly all of them answered with some concrete plan of action designed to reform the individual, to reform the society and eventually to free the world from its ills. Zhuangzis answer is different from any one else: free yourself from the world. The central theme: free from conventional values/bias or free-wandering ??

19. The Zhuangzi: Be Free (Z section 23) He tells the story of a man named Nan-jung Zhu who went to visit the Daoist sage Laozi in hopes of finding some solutions to his worries. When he appeared, Laozi promptly inquired, Why did you come with all this crowd of people? (??????????) The man whirled around in astonishment to see if there was someone standing behind him. Needless to say, there was not.

20. Free from conventional values Zhuangzi saw the same human sufferings (war, poverty, injustice, disease, death) that Confucius, Mencius, and Mozi saw. He believed that these sufferings were ills only because one recognized them as such. If one would once forsake his habit of labeling things good/bad, desirable/ undesirable, then all the so-called man-made ills (which, according to Zhuangzi, are the products of mans purposeful and value-ridden actions) would disappear.

21. Free from conventional values Such natural ills would then be seen as an inevitable part of the course of life. Man is the author of his own suffering and bondage, and his fears spring from the web of values are created by himself alone.

22. Sufferings as a part of life Zhuangzi sums up the whole diseased condition of humankind in the metaphor of the leper woman, who, when she gives birth to a child in the deep of the night, rushes to fetch a torch and examine it, trembling with terror lest it look like herself. ????????,??????,????????? (Z ch. 12) But how is one to persuade the leper woman that disease and ugliness are mere man-made labels that have no real validity? We have to accept disease and ugliness are natural and unavoidable process in life.

23. Zhuangzis way of living in the world The one who frees himself from conventional judgments can no longer be made to suffer, for he refuses to recognize poverty as any less desirable than affluence. He does not in any literal sense with draw and hide from the worldto do so would show that he still passed judgment upon the world. He remains within society but refrains from acting out of the motives that ordinary men to struggle for wealth, fame, success

24. Zhuangzis way of living in the world That is, he maintains a state named wu-wei??, or inaction, which does not mean a forced quietude, but a course of action that is not founded upon any purposeful motive of gain or striving. In such a state, all human actions become as spontaneous and mindless as those of the natural world. In this case, man becomes one with Nature, or as Zhuangzi calls it, merges himself with Tian and earth and spirit???????, i.e. the underlying unity that embraces man, Nature, and all that is in the universe.

25. Zhuangzis way of living in the world ??Wu-wei: Zhuangzi turns most often to the analogy of the artist or craftsman. The skilled woodcarver, the skilled butcher (e.g.????), the skilled swimmer does not ponder on the course of action he should take; his skill has become so much a part of him that he merely acts instinctively and spontaneously, and without knowing why, achieves success.

26. Zhuangzis way of living in the world Zhuangzi employs the metaphor of a totally free and purposeless journey, using the Chinese word, ?, yu (to wander or a wandering) to designate the way in which the enlightened man (pure man) wanders through all of creation, enjoying its delights without ever becoming attached to any one part of it.

27. The Butterfly Dream (section 2) Once Zhuang Zhou dream he was a butterfly, a butterfly flitting and fluttering around, happy with himself and doing as he pleased. He didnt know he was Zhung Zhou. Suddenly he woke up and there he was, solid and unmistakable Zhung Zhou. But he didnt know if he was Zhuang Zhou who had dreamt he was a butterfly, or a butterfly dreaming he was Zhuang Zhou. Between Zhuang Zhou and a butterfly there must be some distinction! This is called the Transformation of Things. ????????,??????,?????!????.???,??????.?????????,????????????,?????.?????.

28. Life/ Death (section 6) Life and death are fatedconstant as the succession of dark and dawn, a matter of tian. There are some things which man can do nothing aboutall are a matter of the nature of creatures. If a man is willing to regard tian as a father and to love it, then how much more should he be willing to do for that which is even greater! If he is willing to regard the ruler as superior to himself an to die for him, then how much more should he be willing to do for the Truth Instead of praising Yao and condemning Jieh, it would be better to forget both of them and transform yourself with dao. The Great Clod burdens men from form, labors me with life, ease me in old age, and rests me in death. So if I think well of my life, for the same reason I think of my death. ??,??,??????,??.???????,????.???????????,?????!?????????,?????,?????????????,????????.???????,????,????,????.?????,???????.

29. Useful or not? (section 1) Huizi said to Zhuangzi, I have a big tree named ailanthus. Its trunk is too bumpy to apply a measuring line to, its branches too bent and twisty to match up to a compass or square. You could stand by the road and no carpenter would look at it twice. Your words, too, are big and useless, and so everyone alike spurns them. Zhuangzi said, Maybe you have never seen a wildcat or a weasel. It crouches down and hides, watching for something to come along. It leaps and races east and west, not hesitating to go high or lowuntil it falls into the trap and dies in the net. Then again there is the yak, big as a cloud covering the sky. It certainly knows how to be big, though it doesnt know how to catch rats. Now you have this big tree and your are distressed because it is useless. Why dont you plant in it Not-Even-Anything Village, or the field of Broad-and-Boundless, relax and do nothing by its side, or lie down for a free and easy sleep under it? Axes will never shorten its life, nothing can ever harm it. If theres no use for it, how can it come to grief or pain?

30. Useful or not? (section 1) ??????, ????,????.??????????,??????????,???,????.????,????,?????. ???, ????????????,????;????,????;????,????.????,???????.?????,?????.?????,????,?????????,????,???????,???????.????,????,????,?????!

31. The Story of Wun-tun/ Chaos (section 7) The emperor of the South Sea was called SHu (Brief), the emperor of the North Sea was called Hu (Sudden), and the Emperor of the central region was called Wun-tun (Chaos). Shu and Hu from time to time came together for a meeting in the territory of Wun-tun, and Wun-tun treated them very generously. Shu and Hu discussed how they could repay his kindness. All men, they said, have seven openings so that they can see, hear, eat and breathe. But Wun-tun alone doesnt have any. Lets trying boring him some! Everyday they bored another hole, and one the seventh day Wun-tun died. ??????,??????,???????.????????????,??????.?????????,?: ??????????,????,????.????,??????.

32. What Fish Enjoy (section 17) Zhuangzi and Huizi were strolling along the dam of the Hao River when Zhuangzi said, See how the minnows come out and dart around where they please! Thats what fish really enjoy! Huizi said, You are not a fishhow do you know what fish enjoy? Zhuangzi said, You are not I, how do you know I dont know what fish enjoy? Huizi said, Im not you, so I certainly dont know what you know. On the other hand, youre certainly not a fishso that still proves you dont know what fish enjoy!

33. What Fish Enjoy (section 17) Zhuangzi said, Lets go back to your original question, please. You asked me how* I know what fish enjoyso you already knew I knew it when you asked the question. I know it by standing here beside the Hao. *how, assumes/entails that I know ???????????.???: ??????,????.???: ???,?????? ???: ???,????????? ???: ???,?????,?????,???????,??.???: ????,?? ???????,?????????,??????.

34. The Death of Zhuangzis Wife (section18) Zhuangzis wife died. When Huizi went to convey his condolences, he found Zhuangzi sitting with his legs sprawled out, pounding on a tub and singing, You lived with her, she brought up your children and grew old, said Huizi. It should be enough simply not to weep at her death. But pounding on a tub and singingthis is going too far, isnt it? Zhuangzi said, You are wrong. When she first died, do you think I didnt grieve like anyone else? But I looked back to her beginning and the time before she was born. Not only the time before she was born, but the time before she had a body. Not only the time before she had a body, but the time before she had a spirit

35. The Death of Zhuangzis Wife (section18) Midst of the jumble of wonder and mystery a change took place and she had a spirit. Another change and she had a body. Another change and she was born. Now theres been another change and shes dead. Its just like the progression of the four seasons, spring, summer, fall, winter. Now shes going to lie down peacefully in a vast room. If I were to follow after her bawling and sobbing, it would show that I dont understand anything about fate. So I stopped.

36. The Death of Zhuangzis Wife (section 18) ????,????,??????????.???: ???,????,??????,?????,????! ???: ??.?????,???????!???????,?????????,?????????.??????,????,?????,?????,??????,????????????.????????,?????????,???????,???.

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