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Welcome to English!. Please fill out your agenda. The first 2-3 people to read this, please pass out folders. Clear your desk off except for a pencil, the sheet from yesterday, and your folder. **Turn in your magazine article if you have not already! .

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Welcome to English!

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Welcome to english

Welcome to English!

  • Please fill out your agenda.

  • The first 2-3 people to read this, please pass out folders.

  • Clear your desk off except for a pencil, the sheet from yesterday, and your folder.

    **Turn in your magazine article if you have not already! 


Participles participial phrases and prepositional phrases

Participles, Participial Phrases, and Prepositional Phrases


What is a participle

What is a participle?

  • A participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjective.

  • It ends in –ing or –ed.


Where does the word participle come from

Where does the word participle come from?

  • The word participle comes from Old French (participe) through Latin (participium). It means “a sharing or partaking.”

  • So basically, it means that it “partakes” of both verb and adjective characteristics.


Hmm still confused

Hmm…still confused?

Running as a VERB:

Mousiewas running from the cat.

And now…

Running as an ADJECTIVE:

Running, Mousieescaped the cat.


Examples of participles

Examples of Participles:

Rushing, Stephhurried to class.

Confused, Sara looked at the map.

Broken, the vase lay on the hallway floor.

See how the participles describe the subjects?


Participial phrase

Participial phrase

  • The participle and all of its modifiers (the modifiers are all of the words related to the participle—such as prepositional phrases)

  • The participial phrase functions as an adjective in the sentence.


Examples

Examples:

Rushing through the halls at breakneck speed, Steph ran to class.

Confused by the strange directions in the letter, Sara looked at the map.

Broken into a thousand pieces, the vase lay on the hallway floor.

Looking at the cats competing for the title, Sue chose the lovely Siamese.

Enchanted by its adorable personality, Deb played with the little Persian kitten.

Again, do you see how the phrases describe (modify) the subject?


Introductory participial phrase

Introductory Participial Phrase

  • Always put a comma after an introductory participial phrase.

  • When you write a sentence with an introductory participial phrase, make sure that you put a noun or pronoun immediately after the phrase so that it will have something to modify.


Example

Example:

Lying in front of the fireplace, the kittens dreamed of warm summer days. 

Comfortedby the mother cat, it made a beautiful picture. 

Comforted by the mother cat, the kittens portrayed beauty and happiness.


Described as friendly siamese cats love people

Described as friendly, Siamese cats love people.


Compared to silk the siamese cat s fur is soft and shiny

Compared to silk, the Siamese cat’s fur is soft and shiny.


Blinking their almond shaped eyes it s easy to see why humans can t help but love them

Blinking their almond-shaped eyes, it’s easy to see why humans can’t help but love them.


Differing greatly from the siamese the persian cat has a long coat

Differing greatly from the Siamese, the Persian cat has a long coat.


Known by its wide head and flat face the persian has large eyes

Known by its wide head and flat face, the Persian has large eyes.


Requiring daily grooming the owner must never forget that brushing daily is necessary

Requiring daily grooming, the owner must never forget that brushing daily is necessary.


Practice

Practice

1. Growing up in an active family, Carla had acquired many athletic skills.

2. Knowing her school was starting a football team, Carla decided to practice kicking.

3. Startled by the number of kickers warming up, Carla grew nervous.

  • Glancing at her competitors, she discovered that three of them were female.

  • Carla, worried about the tryouts, gave each student a ball.

    6. Breathing deeply, Carla began to calm down.

    7. The coaches holding the tryouts gave each student a ball.

    8. Smiling at Molly, Carla suggested they help each other practice.

  • Running after the football, both girls forgot to be nervous.

    10. Inspired by world cup competition, her oral report was about a famous soccer player.


Prepositional phrases

Prepositional Phrases


So we know that

So we know that…

  • Prepositions show direction, location, or association

  • Prepositional phrases begin with a preposition and end with a noun or pronoun called the object of the preposition.


Prepositional phrases and commas

Prepositional phrases and commas

  • Here’s the rule:

    • Do not put a comma after a little introductory prepositional phrase (1, 2, or 3 words) unless it’s needed for clarity.

    • Do put a comma after a long introductory prepositional phrase (4 or more words).

    • Do put a comma after a series (sometimes called a succession) of introductory prepositional phrases.


Examples1

Examples:

In the morning we will meet at Jill’s house. (3 words)

On this beautiful, summer morning, let’s hike. (5 words)

Onour last morningatCamp Prep, the bus will leave. (series of 2)

In basketball, uniforms are two-piece outfits. (2 words, but needs comma for clarity)


Through the inside face of a primo wave jason shoots the curl

Through the inside face of a primo wave Jason shoots the curl.

Through the inside face of a primo wave, Jason shoots the curl.


With an ollie and an awesome flip trina executes smoothly

With an ollie and an awesome flip Trina executes smoothly.

With an ollie and an awesome flip, Trina executes smoothly.


In the gym arthur prepares to serve a wicked overhand ace

In the gym Arthur prepares to serve a wicked overhand ace.

No comma needed!


In spite of a pulled hamstring lester still competed

In spite of a pulled hamstring Lester still competed.

In spite of a pulled hamstring, Lester still competed.


Until last year shana had never played softball

Until last year Shana had never played softball.

No comma needed!


In football team championships are won when the team plays together

In football team championships are won when the team plays together.

In football, team championships are won when the team plays together.


Prepositional phrases1

Prepositional Phrases

1. by the stadium

  • after the game

  • over the fence

  • in the stands

  • inside the team’s dugout

  • toward the coach


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