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Tuesday November 1, 2011. (The Birth and Evolution of the Earth; Earth’s Spheres). The Launch Pad Tuesday, 11/1/11. List three things that the Earth has but the Moon does not have. an atmosphere. liquid water. life. Announcements.

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Tuesday november 1 2011
TuesdayNovember 1, 2011

(The Birth and Evolution of the Earth; Earth’s Spheres)


The Launch Pad

Tuesday, 11/1/11

List three things that the Earth has but the Moon does not have.

an atmosphere

liquid water

life


Announcements
Announcements

Any remediations that you want to go on this six-weeks must be done by Friday!

We will have a Quiz tomorrow!


Astrophoto

William Souza has caught not just two, but three birds with one stone with this photo he took from Sao Paolo, Brazil. William captured this photo of the Crescent Moon, Pleiades and Mercury on April 26, 2009.

Astrophoto


The birth of a planet
The Birth one stone with this photo he took from Sao Paolo, Brazil. William captured this photo of the Crescent Moon, Pleiades and Mercury on April 26, 2009.of a Planet

The Nebular Hypothesis assumes a flat, disk shape with the protosun (pre-Sun) at the center.

The inner planets begin to form from metallic and rocky substances.

The larger outer planets began forming from fragments of ices (H2O, CO2,and other compounds.)

Iron and nickel melted and sank to form the metallic core while rocky material rose to form the mantle and Earth’s crust.


Early evolution of earth
Early one stone with this photo he took from Sao Paolo, Brazil. William captured this photo of the Crescent Moon, Pleiades and Mercury on April 26, 2009.Evolution of Earth

Flattening and spinning. Gravity, shock waves, condensing, “dust bunny” analogy.

Origin of Earth - The Nebular Hypothesis

  • Most researchers believe that Earth and the other planets formed at essentially the same time

  • Our solar system evolved from an enormous rotating cloud called the “solar nebula.” (A)

    • The nebula was composed mostly of hydrogen and helium.

  • About 5 billion years ago the nebula began to contract. (B)

  • The nebula assumed a flat, disk shape (accretion disk) with the protosun (pre-Sun) at the center. (C)

  • The inner planets begin to form from metallic and rocky clumps. (D)

  • The larger outer planets began forming from fragments with a high percentage of ices

  • Today (E)


The formation of the early earth
The Formation of the Early one stone with this photo he took from Sao Paolo, Brazil. William captured this photo of the Crescent Moon, Pleiades and Mercury on April 26, 2009.Earth

Figure 12.5


Early evolution of earth1
Early Evolution of Earth one stone with this photo he took from Sao Paolo, Brazil. William captured this photo of the Crescent Moon, Pleiades and Mercury on April 26, 2009.

Formation of Earth’s Layered Structure

  • As Earth formed, the decay of radioactive elements and heat from high-velocity impacts caused the temperature to increase.

    • Iron and nickel began to melt and sink toward the center

    • Lighter rocky components floated outward, toward the surface

  • Gaseous material escaped from Earth’s interior to produce the primitive atmosphere



The Grand Oasis in Space the Earth.

Apollo 8

Christmas Eve, 1968


Unique the Earth.

Fragile

Vulnerable


Earth s spheres
Earth’s “Spheres” the Earth.

Geosphere

Hydrosphere

Cryosphere

Atmosphere

Biosphere

Lithosphere

Asthenosphere

Pedosphere


Earth s spheres1
Earth’s “Spheres” the Earth.

Geosphere

the solid matter of the Earth, as distinct from the seas, plants, animals, and surrounding atmosphere


Geosphere
Geosphere the Earth.

Geosphere


Earth s spheres2
Earth’s “Spheres” the Earth.

Hydrosphere

The ocean is the most prominent feature of the hydrosphere, as it covers nearly 71% of Earth’s surface and contains about 97% of Earth’s water

The hydrosphere also includes fresh water found in streams, lakes, and glaciers, as well as that found underground.


Figure 1 10
Figure 1.10 the Earth.

Hydrosphere


Earth s spheres3
Earth’s the Earth. “Spheres”

Cryosphere

The cryosphere is very important to our understanding of climate change.

Cryosphere

This is the frozen part of the Earth's surface, including the polar ice caps, continental ice sheets, glaciers, sea ice, and permafrost.


Cryosphere
Cryosphere the Earth.

Cryosphere


Earth s spheres4
Earth’s “Spheres” the Earth.

Atmosphere

  • Our atmosphere is the thin, tenuous blanket of air that surrounds Earth.

  • One-half of the atmosphere lies below 3.5 miles (18 500 feet.)

  • Our atmosphere shields us from harmful solar rays.


Atmosphere
Atmosphere the Earth.

Atmosphere


Earth s spheres5
Earth’s “Spheres” the Earth.

Earth’s biosphere includes all life, and is concentrated near the surface in a zone that extends from the ocean floor upward for several kilometers into the atmosphere.

Biosphere


Biosphere
Biosphere the Earth.


Earth s spheres6
Earth’s “Spheres” the Earth.

The lithosphere is the rigid outer layer of solid Earth that can be broken.

It includes the crust and the uppermost mantle, which constitute the hard and rigid outer layer of the Earth.

Lithosphere


Earth s spheres7
Earth’s “Spheres” the Earth.

  • The asthenosphere is the weaker, hotter, and deeper part of the upper mantle.

Asthenosphere


Asthenosphere
Asthenosphere the Earth.

Asthenosphere


Earth s spheres8
Earth’s “Spheres” the Earth.

Pedosphere

The pedosphere is the uppermost part of the lithosphere that chemically reacts to the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere through the soil forming process.


Pedosphere
Pedosphere the Earth.

Pedosphere


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