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Tuesday November 1, 2011. (The Birth and Evolution of the Earth; Earth’s Spheres). The Launch Pad Tuesday, 11/1/11. List three things that the Earth has but the Moon does not have. an atmosphere. liquid water. life. Announcements.

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tuesday november 1 2011
TuesdayNovember 1, 2011

(The Birth and Evolution of the Earth; Earth’s Spheres)

slide2

The Launch Pad

Tuesday, 11/1/11

List three things that the Earth has but the Moon does not have.

an atmosphere

liquid water

life

announcements
Announcements

Any remediations that you want to go on this six-weeks must be done by Friday!

We will have a Quiz tomorrow!

astrophoto

William Souza has caught not just two, but three birds with one stone with this photo he took from Sao Paolo, Brazil. William captured this photo of the Crescent Moon, Pleiades and Mercury on April 26, 2009.

Astrophoto
the birth of a planet
The Birth of a Planet

The Nebular Hypothesis assumes a flat, disk shape with the protosun (pre-Sun) at the center.

The inner planets begin to form from metallic and rocky substances.

The larger outer planets began forming from fragments of ices (H2O, CO2,and other compounds.)

Iron and nickel melted and sank to form the metallic core while rocky material rose to form the mantle and Earth’s crust.

early evolution of earth
Early Evolution of Earth

Flattening and spinning. Gravity, shock waves, condensing, “dust bunny” analogy.

Origin of Earth - The Nebular Hypothesis

  • Most researchers believe that Earth and the other planets formed at essentially the same time
  • Our solar system evolved from an enormous rotating cloud called the “solar nebula.” (A)
    • The nebula was composed mostly of hydrogen and helium.
  • About 5 billion years ago the nebula began to contract. (B)
  • The nebula assumed a flat, disk shape (accretion disk) with the protosun (pre-Sun) at the center. (C)
  • The inner planets begin to form from metallic and rocky clumps. (D)
  • The larger outer planets began forming from fragments with a high percentage of ices
  • Today (E)
early evolution of earth1
Early Evolution of Earth

Formation of Earth’s Layered Structure

  • As Earth formed, the decay of radioactive elements and heat from high-velocity impacts caused the temperature to increase.
    • Iron and nickel began to melt and sink toward the center
    • Lighter rocky components floated outward, toward the surface
  • Gaseous material escaped from Earth’s interior to produce the primitive atmosphere
slide11

The Grand Oasis in Space

Apollo 8

Christmas Eve, 1968

slide12

Unique

Fragile

Vulnerable

earth s spheres
Earth’s “Spheres”

Geosphere

Hydrosphere

Cryosphere

Atmosphere

Biosphere

Lithosphere

Asthenosphere

Pedosphere

earth s spheres1
Earth’s “Spheres”

Geosphere

the solid matter of the Earth, as distinct from the seas, plants, animals, and surrounding atmosphere

geosphere
Geosphere

Geosphere

earth s spheres2
Earth’s “Spheres”

Hydrosphere

The ocean is the most prominent feature of the hydrosphere, as it covers nearly 71% of Earth’s surface and contains about 97% of Earth’s water

The hydrosphere also includes fresh water found in streams, lakes, and glaciers, as well as that found underground.

figure 1 10
Figure 1.10

Hydrosphere

earth s spheres3
Earth’s “Spheres”

Cryosphere

The cryosphere is very important to our understanding of climate change.

Cryosphere

This is the frozen part of the Earth\'s surface, including the polar ice caps, continental ice sheets, glaciers, sea ice, and permafrost.

cryosphere
Cryosphere

Cryosphere

earth s spheres4
Earth’s “Spheres”

Atmosphere

  • Our atmosphere is the thin, tenuous blanket of air that surrounds Earth.
  • One-half of the atmosphere lies below 3.5 miles (18 500 feet.)
  • Our atmosphere shields us from harmful solar rays.
atmosphere
Atmosphere

Atmosphere

earth s spheres5
Earth’s “Spheres”

Earth’s biosphere includes all life, and is concentrated near the surface in a zone that extends from the ocean floor upward for several kilometers into the atmosphere.

Biosphere

earth s spheres6
Earth’s “Spheres”

The lithosphere is the rigid outer layer of solid Earth that can be broken.

It includes the crust and the uppermost mantle, which constitute the hard and rigid outer layer of the Earth.

Lithosphere

earth s spheres7
Earth’s “Spheres”
  • The asthenosphere is the weaker, hotter, and deeper part of the upper mantle.

Asthenosphere

asthenosphere
Asthenosphere

Asthenosphere

earth s spheres8
Earth’s “Spheres”

Pedosphere

The pedosphere is the uppermost part of the lithosphere that chemically reacts to the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere through the soil forming process.

pedosphere
Pedosphere

Pedosphere

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