Respiratory tract pathology
Download
1 / 20

Respiratory tract pathology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 109 Views
  • Uploaded on

Respiratory tract pathology. Premed 2 Pathophysiology. Common Upper respiratory tract Disorders. Acute rhinitis -common cold -adenovirus Allergic rhinitis -type I hypersensitivity reaction -mast cells, basophils Bacterial infection -superimposed infection

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Respiratory tract pathology' - enid


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Respiratory tract pathology

Respiratory tract pathology

Premed 2

Pathophysiology


Common upper respiratory tract disorders
Common Upper respiratory tract Disorders

  • Acute rhinitis

    -common cold

    -adenovirus

  • Allergic rhinitis

    -type I hypersensitivity reaction

    -mast cells, basophils

  • Bacterial infection

    -superimposed infection

    -common bacteria: Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Hemophilus


  • Sinusitis

    -inflammation of the paranasal sinuses

  • Laryngitis

    -edema, inflammation, hoarseness

  • Acute epiglotitis

    -severe, children

    -Hemophilus influenzae



Malignancies of the urt
Malignancies of the URT

  • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    -SEA and Africa

    -Epstein-Barr virus

  • Squamous cell carcinoma

    -most frequently occurring tumor


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease

  • Airflow obstruction

  • Decrease in 1-minute forced expiratory volume

  • Increased/normal forced vital capacity

  • Bronchial asthma

  • Chronic bronchitis

  • Pulmonary emphysema

  • Bronchiectasis


Bronchial asthma
Bronchial asthma

  • Episodes of dyspnea

  • Wheezing on expiration

  • Smooth muscle hypertrophy

  • Hyperplasia of the bronchial submucosal glands and goblet cells

  • Viscid mucus with Curschmann spirals and Charcot-Leyden crystals


Chronic bronchitis
Chronic bronchitis

  • Productive cough that occurs for 3 consecutive months in 2 consecutive years

  • Hyperplasia of the bronchial submucosal glandsincreased Reid index

  • Reid index: ratio of the thickness of the gland layer to that of the bronchial wall

  • Cigarette smoking

  • Air pollution

  • Infection

  • Complication: cor pulmonale



Emphysema
Emphysema

  • Dilatation of the air spaces

  • Destruction of the alveolar walls

  • Lack of elastic recoil

  • Increased antero-posterior diameter of the chest

  • Hypoxia, cyanosis, respiratory acidosis

  • Cigarette smoking

  • Hereditary alpha-antitrypsin deficiency


Bronchiectasis
Bronchiectasis

  • Permanent abnormal bronchial dilatation

  • Chronic infection

  • Inflammation and necrosis of the bronchial wall

  • Copious pururlent sputum

  • Hemoptysis

  • Lung abscess


  • Predisposing factor:

    -bronchial tumor

    -Kartagener syndrome: sinusitis, bronchiectasis, situs inversus


Respiratory distress syndrome
Respiratory Distress Syndrome

  • Surfactant

    • decreases the surface tension of the alveoli

    • needed for alveoli to fill with air and expand (compliance)

  • Infant respiratory distress syndrome (hyaline membrane disease)

  • Adult respiratory distress syndrome


Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome
Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

  • Hyaline membrane disease

  • Most common cause of death in premature infants

  • Dyspnea, cyanosis, tachynea after birth

  • Deficiency of surfactant: dipalmitoyl lecithin; from type II pneumocytes


HMD

  • Predisposing factors

    prematurity

    maternal diabetes

    caesarean section


Pneumoconiosis
Pneumoconiosis

  • Anthracosis: carbon dust

  • Coal worker’s pneumoconiosis: coal dust

  • Silicosis: free silica dust

  • Asbestosis: asbestos fibers  ferruginous bodies

    -brochogenic carcinoma

    -malignant mesothelioma


Bronchogenic carcinoma
Bronchogenic carcinoma

  • Directly proportional to the number of cigarettes smoked daily and the number of years

  • Air pollution

  • Radiation: radium, uranium

  • Asbestos

  • Nickel, chromates


Bronchogenic carcinoma1
Bronchogenic carcinoma

  • 5-year survival rate: 10 %

  • Cough

    hempotysis

    bronchial obstruction

  • Local extension: pleura, pericardium, ribs



ad