Download

The Crisis of the Late Middle Ages (1300-1450)






Advertisement
/ 46 []
Download Presentation
Comments
engelbert
From:
|  
(112) |   (0) |   (0)
Views: 77 | Added: 20-12-2012
Rate Presentation: 1 0
Description:
The Crisis of the Late Middle Ages (1300-1450). Or “The Calamitous 14 th c.”. Introduction. Why the “calamitous 14 th c.”?. From historian Barbara Tuchman’s The Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th c.
The Crisis of the Late Middle Ages (1300-1450)

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only and may not be sold or licensed nor shared on other sites. SlideServe reserves the right to change this policy at anytime. While downloading, If for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.











- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -




Slide 1

The Crisis of the Late Middle Ages (1300-1450)

Or “The Calamitous 14th c.”

Slide 2

Introduction

Slide 3

Why the “calamitous 14th c.”?

From historian Barbara Tuchman’s The Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th c.

Her thesis: when the gap between the ideal and the real [in society] becomes too wide, the system breaks down.

Slide 4

Essential Questions & Objectives

Questions:

  • In what ways was the 14th c. “calamitous”?

  • To what extent is Tuchman’s thesis accurate?

    Objectives:

  • Recognize the geography of Europe in the later Middle Ages.

  • Identify events that have resulted in the use of the term “calamitous” to describe the 14th c.

  • Describe the social characteristics of the 14th c.

Slide 5

Geography

Slide 6

Europe in 1300

Slide 7

Geography of Europe in 1300

Europe = many small states!!

Major states at this time:

England Scotland Norway

Sweden Portugal Denmark

France Bohemia (= Czech Republic today)

Austria Teutonic Order (= Baltic states today)

Do not yet exist as we know them today:

Spain = Castile, Aragon, Granada, Navarre; not united

Italy = Sicily, Papal States, + others; not united

Germany = not united; part of Holy Roman Empire

Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg = the Low Countries

Russia = group of principalities; Mongol Yoke (1237-1480)

Nations of SE Europe = part of Byzantine Empire

Slide 8

Europe in 1328

Slide 9

Europe in 1400

Slide 10

Geography of Europe in 1400

From 1300-1400 states consolidated their holdings = fewer small states

Major states at this time:

England Union of Kalmar = Norway, Sweden, Denmark

Scotland Poland-Lithuania

Portugal Bohemia

France Hungary

Austria Wallachia (= Romania today)

Ottoman Empire

Do not yet exist as we know them today:

Spain, Italy, Germay = still not united

Russia = still under Mongol Yoke (1237-1480)

Slide 11

Events

In what ways was the 14th c. “calamitous”?

Slide 12

(1) Great Famine (1315-1322)

From the Apocalypse in a Biblia Pauperum illuminated at Erfurt around the time of the Great Famine.

Death sits astride a lion whose long tail ends in a ball of flame (Hell). Famine points to her hungry mouth.

Slide 13

price inflation

In 1315 the price of wheat rose 800%

3 SFHS cookies cost $1.25.

With 800% inflation  $10!

In 1303 and 1306-1307, the Baltic Sea froze!

Causes

  • terrible weather

Slide 14

 susceptibility to disease

later marriage

 population

 homeless

rich farmers buy out poor farmers

volatile land market

unemployment

migration of young males to towns

 crime

Int’l trade = consequences spread far

Gov’t. responses ineffective

Dürer’s Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1497-98)

Consequences

Pestilence

War

Famine

Death

Slide 15

(2) Black Death (1348)

Boccaccio in The Decameron:

The victims ate lunch with their friends and dinner with their ancestors.

Slide 16

Causes

  • famine  susceptibility to disease

  • advances in shipbuilding

  • Genoese traders carry black rats from the Crimea

  • urban overcrowding & poor sanitation

Slide 17

The Culprits

Slide 18

The Disease Cycle

Flea drinks rat blood that carries the bacteria.

Bacteria

multiply in

flea’s gut.

bubonic = spread by flea

pneumonic = spread human-human

Human is infected!

Flea bites human and regurgitates blood into human wound.

Flea’s gut cloggedwith bacteria.

Slide 19

The Symptoms

Buba

Septicemic Form:almost 100% mortality rate.

Slide 20

The Mortality Rate

35-70%

25,000,000 dead!!!

Slide 21

Consequences – Social

  • pogroms against Jews

  • merchants endow hospitals

  • migration

  • clergy care for sick

The burning of Jews in 1349

Slide 22

 unemployment

craft guilds take new members

inflation

 productivity, wages, & standard of living

Wage Increase

PLabor

S1

S

P2

P1

D

Q2

Q1

QLabor

Consequences – Economic

Slide 23

Consequences – Psychological/Cultural

  • pessimism

  • art & lit – theme of death

  • flagellants

  • new colleges & universities – more localized

  • culturally Europe becomes more divided

Dance Macabre (Hans Holbein)

Slide 24

(3) Hundred Years’ War (ca 1337-1453)

Battle of Sluys (1340). Illustration from a manuscript of Froissart’s Chronicles.

ENGLAND VS. FRANCE

Slide 25

Causes 1: Controversy over succession to French throne

  • Charles IV of France dies heirless

  • French nobility selects Philip VI of Valois

  • Chosen over Edward III of England

    • “no woman or her son could succeed to the [French] monarchy”

    • 1340 – proclaims himself King of France

Slide 26

Causes 2: French land belonging to British monarchy

  • English claim Aquitaine as ancient inheritance & occupy it as vassal to French crown

  • Philip VI confiscates Aquitaine in 1337

Pointhieu

Aquitaine

Slide 27

Causes 3: Struggle for French national identity

  • France disunited

  • French vassals of Philip VI side with Edward III to assert independence from French crown

Slide 28

Causes 4: Wool trade & control of Flanders

  • Wool trade b/t England & Flanders

  • Flanders = French fief

  • Flanders wants independence from French rule & asks English for help

Flanders

Slide 29

Course 1: English Winning at 1st

  • Crécy, Calais, Poitiers, Agincourt

  • English longbow

  • vs. French crossbow

  • Cannon

Slide 30

Height of English Dominance, 1429

Slide 31

Course 2: French Victory

  • Joan of Arc to the rescue!

  • Orléans = turning point

Slide 32

Consequences

  • Both

  • economic problems

  • social discontent

  • nationalism

Slide 33

France becomes unified!

France in 1453

France in 1337

Slide 34

(4) Church in Decline

Slide 35

Pope in Avignon

Popes live extravagantly

Rome left in poverty

Clement V

Babylonian Captivity (1309-1376)

Avignon

Slide 36

2 popes!! (Rome & Avignon)

Gregory XI brings papacy back to Rome

Urban VI (Rome) – aggressive reform causes anger & second election

Clement VII (Avignon) – “antipope”

Great Schism (1376-1417)

Slide 37

Great Schism divides Europe politically

Slide 38

Reform movement

Pope derives power from entire Christian community

Constitutional structure: pope + general council

Conciliarism: Theory

Marsiglio of Padua

John Wyclif & Lollards

Slide 39

Conciliarism: Practice

  • Council of Pisa (1409)  3 popes!!

  • Council of Constance (1414-1418) – 3 goals:

    • end Great Schism

    • end heresy

    • reform church

Jan Hus

Slide 40

(5) Fur collar crime

  • Nobles attack rich and poor to raise money

Slide 41

Jacquerie (1358)

Causes:

Long-term socioeconomic grievances

100 Years War – taxation

Result: Crushed by nobility

English Peasants’ Revolt (1381)

Causes:

Long-term socioeconomic grievances (Statute of Laborers freezes wages)

Urging by preachers

100 Years War – French raids

Head tax on adult males

Result: Crushed by Richard II but serfdom disappeared by 1550

(6) Peasant Revolts

Slide 42

Society

Life went on even in the face of calamity.

What did 14th c. society look like?

Slide 43

Marriage & Family

Arranged

Based on economics (vs. ♥)

Age: men in mid-late 20s, women <20

Children = objects of affection

No divorce (annulments in rare cases)

Prostitution

Legal & regulated

Not respected

Urban

Slide 44

Work

Rural: farming

Urban: craft guilds – hard to enter (more open post-plague)

Women “inferior”  limited opportunities

Religion

Central to life

 lay control over parish affairs

Recreation

Aristocracy: tournaments

Commoners: archery, wrestling, alcohol

Both: “blood sports,” executions

Life in the Parish

Slide 45

Race & Ethnicity on the Frontiers

  • Migration of peoples to frontier regions

  • “race”/“ethnicity” = used to mean language, customs, laws (vs. blood)

  • Legal dualism: natives subject to local laws & newcomers subject to laws of former homeland

    • Ireland as exception – Statute of Kilkenny (1366)

  • As time passed, moved away from legal dualism toward homogeneity & emphasis on blood descent

    • Dalimil Chronicle

Slide 46

Vernacular Literature

  • Dante, Divine Commedy (Italy)

  • Chaucer, Canterbury Tales (England)

  • Villon, Lais & Grand Testament (France)

  • Christine de Pisan, The City of Ladies, etc. (France)

  •  lay literacy – due to needs of commerce & gov’t.

Dante

Christine de Pisan presenting her book to the Queen of France


Copyright © 2014 SlideServe. All rights reserved | Powered By DigitalOfficePro