4TH. CONFERENCE ON ARCH BRIDGES
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4TH. CONFERENCE ON ARCH BRIDGES. Barcelona, November 17-19 2004. REPAIR OF STONE MASONRY ARCH BRIDGES. Daniel Oliveira & Paulo Lourenço U N I V E R S I T Y O F M I N H O. . . Masonry Arch Bridges in Portugal:. Major Causes of Damage:. -. -. -. -.

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Daniel Oliveira & Paulo Lourenço U N I V E R S I T Y O F M I N H O

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Daniel oliveira paulo louren o u n i v e r s i t y o f m i n h o

4TH. CONFERENCE ON ARCH BRIDGES

Barcelona, November 17-19 2004

REPAIR OF STONE MASONRY ARCH BRIDGES

Daniel Oliveira & Paulo Lourenço

U N I V E R S I T Y O F M I N H O


Daniel oliveira paulo louren o u n i v e r s i t y o f m i n h o

Masonry Arch Bridges in Portugal:

Major Causes of Damage:

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Roman Period, Medieval Age and Modern Period

(Priceless architectural and cultural legacy, but often showing signs of damage)

Deep change of loads for which bridges were built

Lack of adequate maintenance

Ageing processes (decay of the materials)

4 T H. C O N F E R E N C E O N A R C H B R I D G E S - B A R C E L O N A , 2 0 0 4

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION


Daniel oliveira paulo louren o u n i v e r s i t y o f m i n h o

Generalized Damage:

Localized Damage:

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Presence of humidity and efflorescences

By performing periodical inspections

Absence of mortar in the stone joints

Lack of plumbness of the spandrel walls

Movement of abutments

Existence of vegetation and biological colonization

By carrying out repair and strengthening measures…

By reducing the traffic load

Accelerated decay of the materials

Longitudinal cracking of the arches

But damage can be “minimized”…

4 T H. C O N F E R E N C E O N A R C H B R I D G E S - B A R C E L O N A , 2 0 0 4

INTRODUCTION

(Preventive maintenance)


Daniel oliveira paulo louren o u n i v e r s i t y o f m i n h o

Principles of Intervention in the Architectural Heritage (ICOMOS):

Survey and Repair of 2 Portuguese Masonry ArchBridges

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Compatibility between existing and new materials

Boutaca Bridge

Respect of the original conception

Minimum repair to assure safety and durability

Donim Bridge

4 T H. C O N F E R E N C E O N A R C H B R I D G E S - B A R C E L O N A , 2 0 0 4

When dealing with architectural valuable constructions…

INTRODUCTION


Daniel oliveira paulo louren o u n i v e r s i t y o f m i n h o

BOUTACA BRIDGE (stone masonry)

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Date of construction: 1860

Purpose: roadway (belonging to the former road Lisbon-Porto)

Dimensions: 60m length, 7m width (5m span )

Local: Batalha, center of Portugal

Tie rods + anchorages

Flat roadway

Pointed Arches

Buttressing System

Uncertain safety conditions  Survey requested

4 T H. C O N F E R E N C E O N A R C H B R I D G E S - B A R C E L O N A , 2 0 0 4

INTRODUCTION

BOUTACA BRIDGE


Daniel oliveira paulo louren o u n i v e r s i t y o f m i n h o

Results of the Survey carried out:

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Vegetation & lost of plaster (lack of maintenance)

Humidity & biological colonization (deficient drainage system)

Cracking in the buttress walls

4 T H. C O N F E R E N C E O N A R C H B R I D G E S - B A R C E L O N A , 2 0 0 4

INTRODUCTION

BOUTACA BRIDGE

(Buttresses overloaded)

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Existing anchorages much deteriorated and rather deformed (outward movement of masonry)


Daniel oliveira paulo louren o u n i v e r s i t y o f m i n h o

Recommended Remedial Measures:

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Lightening the buttresses  Tie rods + patress plates

4 T H. C O N F E R E N C E O N A R C H B R I D G E S - B A R C E L O N A , 2 0 0 4

A) Structural Strengthening

INTRODUCTION

Additional “buttressing system”

BOUTACA BRIDGE

Patress plate

Tie rod


Daniel oliveira paulo louren o u n i v e r s i t y o f m i n h o

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Waterproofing of the pavement and reconstruction of the drainage system

Cleaning and removal of vegetation

Replacement of plaster

Need for periodical visual inspections

4 T H. C O N F E R E N C E O N A R C H B R I D G E S - B A R C E L O N A , 2 0 0 4

B) Other measures:

INTRODUCTION

BOUTACA BRIDGE


Daniel oliveira paulo louren o u n i v e r s i t y o f m i n h o

DONIM BRIDGE (stone masonry)

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Local: Guimarães, North of Portugal

Purpose: roadway (major importance untill 2 centuries ago)

Date of construction: 15th – 16th century

Flat roadway

Flood arch

Semicircular Arches

Pier + Cutwaters

Precarious safety conditions  Survey requested

4 T H. C O N F E R E N C E O N A R C H B R I D G E S - B A R C E L O N A , 2 0 0 4

INTRODUCTION

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BOUTACA BRIDGE

Dimensions: 62m length, 4m width (larger span ≈ 12m)

DONIM BRIDGE


Daniel oliveira paulo louren o u n i v e r s i t y o f m i n h o

Results of the Survey carried out:

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Extensive longitudinal cracking in the left arch

Infesting vegetation all over the bridge

Longitudinal cracking in the flood (right) arch

Cutwater of the right pier highly damaged

4 T H. C O N F E R E N C E O N A R C H B R I D G E S - B A R C E L O N A , 2 0 0 4

INTRODUCTION

BOUTACA BRIDGE

DONIM BRIDGE


Daniel oliveira paulo louren o u n i v e r s i t y o f m i n h o

Major problems :

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1 block foundation missing (underwater inspection)

A numerical analysis (3D, non-linear) carried out allow to confirm the damage observed and helped understanding its causes

Pre-collapse of a cutwater (right pier)

Longitudinal cracking in the left and right arches

Spandrel walls out of plumb

Outward movements of spandrel walls

4 T H. C O N F E R E N C E O N A R C H B R I D G E S - B A R C E L O N A , 2 0 0 4

INTRODUCTION

BOUTACA BRIDGE

DONIM BRIDGE

(Incremental principal strains)


Daniel oliveira paulo louren o u n i v e r s i t y o f m i n h o

Recommended Remedial Measures:

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Voussoirs placed in their original positions by means of rope-strechers

Fastening of stainless steel U profiles placed in a U shape above the arch and close to the spandrel walls

Remove of the infill

Tie rod to bind the spandrel walls

Infill put back into its place

4 T H. C O N F E R E N C E O N A R C H B R I D G E S - B A R C E L O N A , 2 0 0 4

A) Left Arch (return joint’s thickness to its original width)

INTRODUCTION

BOUTACA BRIDGE

DONIM BRIDGE

tie rod

] profiles

U shape

Anchor rods


Daniel oliveira paulo louren o u n i v e r s i t y o f m i n h o

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Full width anchors across the arch

Stitching anchors linking the arch to the spandrel walls

Stitching anchors

Full width anchors

4 T H. C O N F E R E N C E O N A R C H B R I D G E S - B A R C E L O N A , 2 0 0 4

B) Flood (right) Arch (prevent further spreading of the arch)

INTRODUCTION

BOUTACA BRIDGE

DONIM BRIDGE


Daniel oliveira paulo louren o u n i v e r s i t y o f m i n h o

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Dismantling and rebuilding of the right cutwater (same stones + steel cramps + steel latches)

Replacement of the missing foundation stone block

Waterproofing of the pavement and reconstruction of the drainage system

Cleaning and removal of vegetation

Repointing of the deteriorated masonry joints

4 T H. C O N F E R E N C E O N A R C H B R I D G E S - B A R C E L O N A , 2 0 0 4

C) Other measures:

INTRODUCTION

BOUTACA BRIDGE

DONIM BRIDGE


Daniel oliveira paulo louren o u n i v e r s i t y o f m i n h o

Final Remarks

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Cleaning and removal of vegetation

Adoption of repair measures compatible with modern principles of structural intervention in the architectural heritage

Waterproofing and drainage of the pavement

Thank you for your attention

www.civil.uminho.pt/masonry

4 T H. C O N F E R E N C E O N A R C H B R I D G E S - B A R C E L O N A , 2 0 0 4

Common features to both examples

INTRODUCTION

BOUTACA BRIDGE

DONIM BRIDGE

FINAL REMARKS


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