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Warm UP. Illustrate how the chromosome number in a sexually reproducing organism with 8 chromosomes remains constant from one generation to the next by drawing a model of meiosis and showing the TOTAL number of chromosomes in each stage, the steps, and the products for male and female. Warm Up.

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Presentation Transcript
warm up
Warm UP
  • Illustrate how the chromosome number in a sexually reproducing organism with 8 chromosomes remains constant from one generation to the next by drawing a model of meiosis and showing the TOTAL number of chromosomes in each stage, the steps, and the products for male and female.
warm up1
Warm Up
  • Deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
  • One of the four possible bases in a string of DNA—it pairs with adenine
  • A subunit of DNA that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
  • The complement to guanine
warm up2
Warm Up
  • What letters represent the four bases?
  • Using X-ray diffraction, what did Rosalind Franklin show the shape of DNA to be?
  • Watson and Crick built a DNA model like a ……
  • The sides of the DNA “ladder” are made of…….
  • The “rungs” of the DNA ladder are…..
pick up warm up
Pick Up Warm Up
  • On the back of your warm up, answer the following:
  • What are the phenotypes based on the genotypes:

Ggbb ____________________

ggBB ____________________

ggbb ____________________

GgBb ____________________

warm up3
Warm Up
  • A male rabbit with the genotype GGbb is crossed with a female rabbit with the genotype ggBb.
  • Determine the phenotypes and proportions in the offspring.
warm up4
Warm Up
  • How many out of 16 have grey fur and black eyes?
  • How many out of 16 have grey fur and red eyes?
  • How many out of 16 have white fur and black eyes?
  • How many out of 16 have white fur and red eyes?
what is dna
What is DNA
  • Deoxyriboneucleic Acid:

a genetic code (like a blueprint) for making new cell parts, new cells, or an entirely new organism.

  • DNA wraps around protein cores and forms chromosomes found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.
history of dna
History of DNA
  • 1952 – Rosalyn Franklin discovered that DNA is made up of 2 chains of molecules arranged in a spiral form.
history of dna1
History of DNA

Chargaff’s Rule:

-Adenine always equals amount of Thymine.

A = T

-Guanine always equals amount of Cytosine.

G = C

history of dna2
History of DNA
  • 1953 – James Watson and Francis Crick constructed the first model of DNA and win the Nobel Peace Prize.
dna structure
DNA Structure
  • DNA is often called a “double helix” or “twisted ladder.”
  • The sides are made of phosphate and deoxyribose-sugar molecules.
  • The middle (rungs) are made of nitrogenous base pairs (adenine/thymine, guanine/cytosine).
four nucleotides
Four Nucleotides

The Four:

Adenine

Thymine

Cytosine

Guanine

  • Nucleotide: combination of a phosphate molecule, deoxyribose-sugar molecule & a nitrogenous base.
complementary bases
Complementary Bases

The complementary strand/sequence to

G-A-T-T-A-C-A would be…

Remember Chargaff’s Rule:

dna replication
DNA Replication
  • Before any cell can make a copy of itself, all the DNA must be copied!
  • This is called DNA replication.
dna replication1
DNA Replication
  • An enzyme opens the strands of DNA so that they become single stranded.
  • Complimentary nucleotides come fill in the missing strand.
  • Two DNA strands are formed.
let s model dna
Let’s Model DNA
  • Have students stand in two lines that spiral like a DNA molecule. Each line should hold string.
  • Students should hold cards labeled A, T, C, or G to represent the nucleotide pairs.
  • Have the two lines move away from each other to model how the DNA molecule separates into two strands.
  • Have free standing students pair up with matching A, T, C, or G cards to show how the open strands replicate.
  • This one example of how models can be similar to yet different from the natural occurrences they represent.

http://www.classzone.com/books/ml_science_share/vis_sim/chm05_pg141_protein/chm05_pg141_protein.html

making proteins
Making Proteins
  • Groups of three nitrogenous bases are a code (codon) for making specific amino acids
  • Strings of amino acids form proteins
  • RNA (riboneucleic acid) makes a temporary DNA copy

Genes: sections of DNA on chromosomes that

control production of proteins for specific traits such as:

hair color, eye color, dimples, freckles….

rna vs dna
RNA vs. DNA

Differences:

Similarities:

  • Are nucleic acids
  • Contain nitrogenous bases
  • Contain phosphate & sugar molecules

Deoxyribose Sugar

types of rna
Types of RNA
  • messengerRNA or mRNA: comes from nucleus w/ genetic information for protein synthesis (mirror image of DNA strand).
  • transferRNA or tRNA: carries matching amino acids to ribosomes.
  • ribosomalRNA or rRNA: constitutes 50% of a ribosome, decodes mRNA for tRNA to pick-up matching amino acids.
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