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The War To End All Wars: World War I

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Presented By: Joshua Burrows. The War To End All Wars: World War I. Section 1. World War I Begins. Causes of World War I. M.A.I.N. M ilitarism - the development of armed forces for use as tools for imperialism and diplomacy A lliances

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section 1
Section 1

World War I Begins

causes of world war i
Causes of World War I
  • M.A.I.N.
  • Militarism- the development of armed forces for use as tools for imperialism and diplomacy
  • Alliances
    • Central Powers- Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire
    • Allies- Britain, France, and Russia
causes of world war i cont
Causes of World War I Cont.
  • Imperialism- the extension of a nation’s control over new territory
  • Nationalism- devotion to and pride in the interests and culture of one’s nation
balkan peninsula
Balkan Peninsula
  • “Powder Keg of Europe”
  • Countries
    • Albania
    • Bosnia
    • Romania
    • Serbia
  • International Interests
    • Railway from Germany to Ottoman Empire
    • Russia> Mediterranean Sea
map of wwi
Map of WWI

Map of the Alliances in Europe during World War I

the spark assassination
The Spark : Assassination
  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in 1914
    • Heir to the Austrian Throne
  • Serbian nationalist GavriloPrincip: Assassin
  • Results
    • Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
    • Alliance system is put into action
the archduke
The Archduke

Picture of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand. He would of inherited the throne of Austria if he was not assassinated.

gavrilo princip
GavriloPrincip

The assassin who was responsible for murdering The Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his mistress Sophie. He was believed to be a member of the gang The Black Hand

emperor of germany
Emperor of Germany

Portrait of Kaiser Wilhelm II, the Emperor of Germany. Aiding Austria-Hungary because of the alliance system, he will unknowingly be the cause of the US joining the Allies in WWI

warfare begins
Warfare Begins
  • Schlieffen Plan
    • Germany’s strategic plan to go straight to Paris
    • After conquering France, attention could be directed at Russia
  • Allies hold up at the Marne River and conduct Trench Warfare
warfare begins continued
Warfare Begins Continued
  • 3 types of Trench Warfare
    • Front Line
    • Support
    • Reserve
  • “No Man’s Land”- godforsaken area between the trenches
  • Trench Warfare was brutal and harsh for both the attackers and defenders
    • Huge amounts of casualties for charging forces
    • Trench foot, Shellshock, and disease took a toll on defenders
america questions neutrality
America Questions Neutrality
  • In 1914, most US citizens did not want to get involved
  • In contradiction, some still had ties to Europe
    • Felt close to Europe due to:
      • Common language
      • Ancestry
      • Government
  • US had economic ties with the Allies
trench warfare
Trench Warfare

Pictures of the brutal conditions of trench warfare experienced in WWI. Between the confined space, mud, disease, depression, low morale, death, and many other factors, WWI had some of the worst conditions for soldiers out of any war.

blockade
Blockade
  • British Blockade- The British Royal Navy blockaded German Coast
    • Prevent weapons and military supplies from leaving or entering Germany
  • American ships carrying German merchandise couldn’t go through the blockade
  • Germany could not import foods
    • Resulted in famine
the war hits home
The War Hits Home
  • Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
    • German response to British Blockade
    • German U-Boats would engage any ships flying Allied Flags
  • Germans sank the Lusitaniain 1915
    • 128 American casualties
  • Sussex Pledge- Germany will not sink anymore ships without warning
  • 1916 Election- Woodrow Wilson is relected
    • “He Kept Us Out Of War”
sinking of the lusitania
Sinking of the Lusitania

Illustration of the U-Boat U-20 surfacing after sinking the British passenger ship Lusitania

the us gets involved
The US Gets Involved
  • Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare
  • Zimmerman Note
    • Secret note from Germany to Mexico
    • If Mexico joined the Central Powers, they would receive the Mexican Cession Territory
    • British intercepted the telegram, sent it to the US; Mexico declined the offer
zimmerman note political cartoon
Zimmerman Note Political Cartoon

Any early form of the press expressing their opinions of politics, Political Cartoons have been made around for a long time. This is one describing the Zimmerman Note situation.

the zimmerman note
The Zimmerman Note

The “before” and “after” of the interception of the Zimmerman Note

us declares war
US Declares War
  • Oppressive Russian monarchy replaced with a democracy
    • US feared communism
    • Bolshevic Revolution
    • US felt comfortable with Lenin’s Russia
  • President Woodrow Wilson delivers a declaration of war
    • US joins the Allies
section 2
Section 2

American Power Tips the Balance

america mobilizes
America Mobilizes
  • Selective Service Act- required for men to register with in order to be randomly selected for military service
  • The US had to achieve the goal of supplying and transporting a large army during German unrestricted submarine warfare
    • Exempted shipyard workers for draft
    • Shipyards used assembly line techniques
    • Converted commercial and private ships into warships
america turns the tide
America Turns the Tide
  • American Admiral William S. Sims conceived the idea of the Convoy System
    • Armed Destroyers escort merchant or supply ships on the Atlantic
  • American troops contributed the Allied war effort with supplies, troops, and moral
    • American Expeditionary Force
      • Known as the “Doughboys”
    • Commanded by General John J. Pershing
convoy system
Convoy System

A group of Destroyer Class Warships escorts civilian ships across the Atlantic

new weaponry
New Weaponry
  • Machine Guns
  • Tanks
  • Airplanes
  • Observation Balloons
  • Poison Gas
machine guns
Machine Guns
  • The first machine gun was used in the American Civil War
    • Designed by Gatling; known as the “Gatling Gun” or the “Gatling Cannon”
      • Multiple Barrels
      • Crank powered
      • Shell Casings
  • Fast-forward 60 years, machine guns are gas powered and chain or clip fed
    • Maxim, Vickers, Lewis, and Hotchkiss machine guns were some of the most widely used
wwi machine guns
WWI Machine Guns

Pictures of common machine guns used in WWI; Vickers Machine Gun (Top Left), Maxim Machine Gun (Top Right), Lewis Machine Gun (Bottom)

tanks
Tanks
  • Tanks were the infantry’s worst nightmare on a WWI battlefield
  • Primitive tanks were designed to punch through “No Man’s Land” and take enemy trenches by force
  • However tanks in WWI had defects
    • Lightly armored and armed
    • Tank crews would experience sea sickness
    • Gas fumes would flood the inside compartment
wwi tanks
WWI Tanks

Picture of a British Mark I Tank issued into service in 1916. Some initial models had two large wheels added to the back for aided steering, but after proved unsuccessful, they were left off of later models

airplanes
Airplanes
  • Airplanes would be the one invention that wasn’t originally intended for warfare but would be used for war to this day
  • Originally created by Orville and Wilbur Wright for transportation and commercial use
  • During WWI it would have various uses
    • Dogfights- multiple planes would fight in air
    • Bombers- capable of dropping a single bomb
    • Scouts- used to scout out enemy movements ahead
wwi airplanes
WWI Airplanes

Picture of Central Powers bombers targeting allies on the battlefield. These primitive airplanes are made out of wood and light fabric material and could not withstand much flak, as seen around the airplanes in the photo.

observation balloons
Observation Balloons
  • Dating back to the 18th and 19th centuries, Observation Balloons were widely used by both sides during WWI
  • Used to observe the battlefield and give information to the infantry, they had their pros and cons
    • “Sitting Duck”
    • Flack, AA, Machine Guns, and nets were used as defense
poison gas
Poison Gas
  • Poison Gas was a new form of military technology first used in WWI
  • Will come to be known as “chemical warfare”
  • Most commonly used was Chlorine Gas
    • Targeted “No Man’s Land” and enemy trenches
    • Either dropped from a bomber or shot from artillery
    • Chlorine Gas reacts with moisture; First burning your eyes, then turning your lungs into liquid
chlorine gas
Chlorine Gas

Victims of a Chlorine Gas attack in WWI. Bandages over their blinded eyes, surprisingly, these were the lucky ones.

new hazards
New Hazards
  • Trench Warfare
    • Trench mouth and trench foot
    • Lice, rats, disease
    • Polluted water, poison gas
  • Battle fatigue and Shellshock
  • Civilian targets
    • Libraries
    • Cathedrals
    • City Districts
american troops go on the offensive
American Troops Go on the Offensive
  • Russia signed their own treaty with Germany after the Bolshevic Revolution in 1917
    • Left out of the Treaty of Versailles
  • Germans shifted attention to Western Front
  • Americans reinforce the allies just in time
    • Stopped the German offensive
  • Tide began to turn against the Central Powers
the collapse of the central powers
The Collapse of the Central Powers
  • Austria-Hungary surrenders in November, 1918
  • German sailors mutinied
    • Mutiny spread like wildfire
  • Germans started to organize revolutions
  • Berlin Socialists began to establish a Republic
    • Kaiser Wilhelm II gave up throne
  • Germans were exhausted to keep fighting
  • WWI ends on the 11th hour on the 11th day in the 11th month of 1918
    • Germany agreed to an Armistice
      • Everybody drops their weapons and goes home
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