Education reform and school climate
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Education Reform and School Climate. I. Early Interventions. Head Start. A federally funded program in the 1960’s targeted toward at-risk preschoolers. Designed to prevent generic, negative outcomes in adolescents and adulthood.

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Education reform and school climate

Education Reform and School Climate

I. Early Interventions


Head start

Head Start

  • A federally funded program in the 1960’s targeted toward at-risk preschoolers. Designed to prevent generic, negative outcomes in adolescents and adulthood.

  • Short term: Better vocabulary, math and writing skills, and social skills than non-program disadvantaged kids.

  • Long-term: More likely to complete high school and college. Less likely to be arrested or charged with a crime (Ludwig & Phillips, 2007).

  • Cost effectiveness studies: Society can save 7.16 dollars of future costs for every dollar spent on prevention.


The high scope perry preschool project

The High/Scope Perry Preschool Project

  • Often considered a variant of Head Start.

  •  Components

    • Emphasis on active learning.

    • Small class size.

    • Interface with children’s parents.

    • Like Head Start, curriculum extends beyond educational concerns.


The high scope perry preschool project cont

Research

Longitudinal study of 123, low-income, AA children three to four years-old.

Initial data collection between 1962 and 1967.

Random assignment to program or control group.

The High/Scope Perry Preschool Project (cont)


Education reform and school climate1

Education Reform and School Climate

II. School Violence


School violence rates

School Violence: Rates


School violence causes eisenbraun 2007

School Violence: Causes(Eisenbraun, 2007)

  • Personal: high testosterone, low serotonin, gender, drug use, threats of violence, & bullying.

  • Family: Abuse or neglect, inconsistently observed limits, rigidity or over-control.

  • School: Poor school climate or fit, school size, policy responses to violence.

  • Social: poverty, discrimination, gun availability, media violence.


Violence in the media

Violence in the media

  • What portion of young kids view intensely violent media images?

    • Dartmouth study in 2002.


Violence in the media cont

Violence in the media (cont)

  • Is there a relation between heavy viewing and violence?

    • Merits of different designs:

    • Experimental:

      • Bandura and the Bobo dolls in the 1960s.

      • Boyatis et al., 1995.


Violence in the media cont1

Violence in the media (cont)

  • Longitudinal:

    • Eron, et al. (1972).

    • Huesmann et al. (2003) replication.

  • Meta-analyses.

    • Hearold (1986).


Violence in the media conclusions

Violence in the Media—Conclusions

  • The magnitude of the effect of media on violent behavior depends on:

    • Audience characteristics (Grimes, et al. 2004).

    • Media attributes

      • Images that are more realistic, legitimized, and lack of emphasis on the pain and suffering the victim are seen stronger predictors of violent behavior.


School violence prevention

School Violence Prevention.

  • Warning Signs (APA).

  • Positive Action (PA).

    • Flay & Alfred (2003).


Education reform and school climate2

Education Reform and School Climate

III. Dropping Out


Dropping out

Dropping Out

  • See Handouts


Education reform and school climate3

Education Reform and School Climate

IV. Prejudice in the Schools


The contact hypothesis cook 1985

The Contact Hypothesis (Cook, 1985).

  • Contact reduces negative attitudes under certain conditions.

  • Contact with diverse groups is associated with more favorable attitudes towards these groups (e.g., Molina and Wittig, 2006).


The jigsaw method

The Jigsaw Method

  • Is a cooperative learning technique developed in the 1970’s by Elliot Aaronson to reduce prejudice in the schools. 

  • Outcomes:


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