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1. Cinematography SPH 106—Intro. to Broadcasting & Film.
2. Cinematography is the use of light and color in film.
The cinematographer manipulates the elements on screen to form a memorable composition.
3. Film stock
Just as you buy different speeds of film for your 35mm camera, cinematographers use different film stocks to vary contrast, brightness, graininess, etc.
Some films are shot with one stock; others use multiple stocks to achieve a mixture of results.
4. Aspect ratio (the dimensions of the screen image)
Most TV screens are nearly square—4:3 ratio
Widescreen ratios used most often
5. Matting gives the frame its dimension.
Soft-matting (aperture in projector masks the top and bottom of image).
Hard-matting (bars are added to top and bottom of the television image) results in the letterbox format that so many videos are in.
Open-matting (full frame, no matting)
6. Cinematic Lighting Realistic lighting design—shot suggests that light source is on screen.
Pictorial lighting design—light is present from some unknown source for dramatic effect. Pictorial lighting may be used for symbolism. (Ex. Apocalypse Now)
7. Types of Light Hard light—creates high contrast and fast fall-off (the change between light and dark)
Soft light– creates a diffused or scattered lighting effect.
8. Key light—the traditional three-point lighting use by Hollywood…
Key light, the main source directed from the front.
Fill light, the source that fills in shadowy areas from the side.
Back light, illuminates rear of set.
10. High- and low-key lighting
Low key is a shot that is purposely under-lit.
High key uses an abundance of light and has few shadows and low contrast.
11. Lighting continuity—Cinematographers strive to maintain even lighting levels from shot to shot and within shots. Lighting is configured to keep light levels continuous.
12. Digital Effects Composit—live action is joined with digitally created elements.
Motion control—A computer plots the coordinates of the actors so digital elements can be added later within the shot.
Greenscreening—Shooting actors against a blank screen so that computerized images can be inserted later.