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Nonassociative Learning. Lecture 3. Reflexes . Inherited behaviors via genes Smallest unit of organized behavior sensory receptors neurons effectors Learning modification of existing behavior initially reflexive behavior ~. +. +. +. R. Withdrawal reflex. 2 categories of learning.

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reflexes
Reflexes
  • Inherited behaviors
    • via genes
  • Smallest unit of organized behavior
    • sensory receptors
    • neurons
    • effectors
  • Learning
    • modification of existing behavior
    • initially reflexive behavior ~
slide3

+

+

+

R

Withdrawal reflex

2 categories of learning
2 categories of learning
  • Similar characteristics
  • Nonassociative
    • modification of reflexes (unconditional responses)
    • Habituation
    • Sensitization
  • Associative
    • Respondent learning
    • Operant learning~
nonassociative learning habituation
Nonassociative Learning: Habituation
  • Living near the train tracks
  • Habituation
    • ¯response to repeated stimulus
    • stimulus specific
  • Ignore biologically unimportant stimuli
  • Universal in animal kingdom
    • evolved early
      • protozoans ~
adaptiveness of habituation
Adaptiveness of Habituation
  • Conserves resources
    • energy
    • attention
  • Stimuli w/o consequences
    • response diminishes ~
stickleback fish
Stickleback Fish
  • Males defend territory
    • Attack when others approach
  • If other males do not enter territory
    • Attack response diminishes ~
gradually decremental
Gradually Decremental

Hi

Startle

Response

Lo

Number of Presentations

spontaneous recovery
Spontaneous Recovery
  • Learning is relatively permanent
  • Reinstatement of reflexive response
    • due only to passage of time
    • stimulus may again have consequences ~
slide11

Spontaneous Recovery

Stimulus

Hi

Startle

Response

Time

Passes

Lo

Number of Presentations

is it fatigue
Is it fatigue?
  • Temporary physiological change
    • Motor?
    • Sensory?
  • Dishabituation
    • introduce extraneous stimulus
    • recovery of habituated response ~
dishabituation example
Dishabituation: Example
  • Tone (Noise)  startle response in rat
    • Repeat tone  habituation
  • Flash a light
    • Present tone  startle response ~
slide14

Dishabituation

*Light (New)+

Noise

Hi

Startle

Response

Lo

Number of Presentations

Habituation

occurs

dishabituation
Dishabituation
  • Decrease in response not due to fatigue
    • animal capable of response
    • signals a new situation
  • Response is inhibited
    • by activity of neurons ~
generalization
Generalization
  • Organism reacts to similar stimuli in the same way
  • Greater the difference...
    • less habituation evident
  • Color perception in infants ~
effect of stimulus intensity
Effect of Stimulus Intensity
  • Stimulus intensity
    • Intense  stronger response
    • Weak  weaker response
  • Which stimulus will the organism habituate to more quickly? ~
stimulus intensity

Strong stimulus

Weak Stimulus

Stimulus Intensity

Hi

Startle

Response

Lo

Number of Presentations

  • If stimulus too strong  no habituation
    • Biologically important ~
sensitization
Sensitization
  • Increased responsiveness
    • Following a noxious stimulus
  • Less stimulus specific than habituation
    • general increase in vigilance
    • sensitized responses to wide range of stimuli
  • Adaptiveness ~
slide20

Sensitization

Noise

Shock

Hi

Startle

Response

Lo

Number of Presentations

duration habituation sensitization
Duration:Habituation & Sensitization
  • Can be short term
    • lasts hours
    • Change in neural activity
  • or long term
    • several weeks
    • change in neural structure ~
habituation eating
Habituation & Eating
  • 1st taste most pleasant
    •  # tastes   pleasantness
  • Role in meal termination
    • e.g., popcorn, cashews
  • Not just for taste
    • also texture, shape, odor, etc. ~
habituation eating rats
Habituation & Eating: Rats
  • Cabanac (1971)
  • Steady flow of sucrose into mouth
    • tasty  disinterest  aversion
  • Allow rats to eat all rat chow they want
    • voluntarily stop
    • offer sucrose: eat just as many calories ~
habituation eating humans
Habituation & Eating: Humans
  • Rolls (1990)
  • Preference ratings for foods
    • given meal of one of foods
    • rated again   rating for just-eaten food
  • Given 2 meals
    • different foods   same amount eaten
    • same food  2nd meal ate less ~
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