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Earthquakes 101 (EQ101). USGS Earthquake Hazards Program. Lisa Wald USGS Pasadena. U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey. Global Distribution of Earthquakes. Plate Tectonics. USGS Earthquake Hazards Program. Lisa Wald USGS Pasadena. U.S. Department of the Interior

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Earthquakes 101 (EQ101)

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Earthquakes 101 (EQ101)

USGS Earthquake Hazards Program

Lisa Wald

USGS Pasadena

U.S. Department of the Interior

U.S. Geological Survey


Global Distribution of Earthquakes


Plate Tectonics

USGS Earthquake Hazards Program

Lisa Wald

USGS Pasadena

U.S. Department of the Interior

U.S. Geological Survey


Plate Boundaries


Three Types of Faults

Strike-Slip

Thrust

Normal


Strike-slip Fault Example


Strike-slip Fault Example

1906 San Francisco Earthquake


Normal Fault Example

Dixie Valley-Fairview Peaks, Nevada earthquake

December 16, 1954


Thrust Fault Example


Thrust Fault Example


Bigger Faults Make Bigger Earthquakes


Bigger Earthquakes Last a Longer Time


What Controls the Level of Shaking?

  • Magnitude

    • More energy released

  • Distance

    • Shaking decays with distance

  • Local soils

    • amplify the shaking


Is there such a thing as “Earthquake Weather”???

No!


Earthquake Effects - Ground Shaking

Northridge, CA 1994


Earthquake Effects -Ground Shaking

Northridge, CA 1994


Earthquake Effects - Ground Shaking

Loma Prieta, CA 1989

KGO-TV News ABC-7


Earthquake Effects - Ground Shaking

Kobe, Japan 1995


Earthquake Effects - Ground Shaking

Kobe, Japan 1995


Earthquake Effects - Surface Faulting

Landers, CA 1992


Earthquake Effects - Liquefaction

Source: National Geophysical Data Center

Niigata, Japan 1964


Earthquake Effects - Landslides

Source: National Geophysical Data Center

Turnnagin Heights,Alaska,1964


Earthquake Effects - Fires

Loma Prieta, CA 1989

KGO-TV News ABC-7


Earthquake Effects - Tsunamis

1957 Aleutian Tsunami

Photograph Credit: Henry Helbush. Source: National Geophysical Data Center


Seismic Waves


Earthquake Magnitude

M5

M6

M7


Earthquake Location


The San Andreas Fault


Pacific-North American Plate Boundary


Will California eventually fall into the ocean???

No!


Faultsof SouthernCalifornia

Source: SCEC Data Center


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