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Understanding Canadian Business. Chapter 6 Forms of Business Ownership. Learning Goals. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of sole proprietorship. Describe the differences between general and limited partners, and compare the advantages and disadvantages of partnerships.

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Understanding Canadian Business

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Understanding canadian business

Understanding Canadian Business

Chapter 6

Forms of Business Ownership

Learning goals

Learning Goals

  • Compare the advantages and disadvantages of sole proprietorship.

  • Describe the differences between general and limited partners, and compare the advantages and disadvantages of partnerships.

  • Compare the advantages and disadvantages of corporations.

Learning goals1

Learning Goals

  • Define and give examples of three types of corporate mergers, and explain the role and leveraged buyouts and taking a firm private.

  • Outline the advantages and disadvantages of franchises, and discuss the challenges of global franchising.

  • Describe the role of co-operatives in Canada.

Understanding canadian business

  • One key to success in starting a new business is understanding how to get the resources you need.

  • You may have to take on partners or find other ways of obtaining money.

  • You may need help from someone with more expertise than you have in certain areas, or you may need to raise more money to expand.

Sole proprietorship

Sole Proprietorship

Advantages of sole proprietorship

Advantages of Sole Proprietorship

  • Sole proprietorships are the easiest kind of business for you to explore in your quest for an interesting career. Other advantages include:

Disadvantages of sole proprietorship

Disadvantages of Sole Proprietorship



Advantages of partnerships

Advantages of Partnerships

  • More financial resources

  • Shared management & pooled/complementary skills and knowledge

  • Longer survival

  • Shared risk

  • No special taxes

Disadvantages of partnerships

Disadvantages of Partnerships

  • Unlimited liability

    • Each general partner is liable for the debts of the firm, no matter who was responsible for causing the debts.

  • Division of profits

    • Sharing risk means sharing profits, and that can cause conflicts.

  • Disagreements among partners

    • All terms of partnership should be spelled out in writing to protect all parties and minimize misunderstandings

  • Difficult to terminate

Progress assessment

Progress Assessment

  • What is the difference between a limited partners and a general partners?

  • What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of partnerships?



Advantages of corporations

Advantages of Corporations

Disadvantages of corporations

Disadvantages of Corporations

How owners affect management

How Owners Affect Management

Business regulations

Business Regulations

  • Registration

    • Governments need to know what businesses are in operation to ensure that a wide range of laws and regulations are being followed.

      • Unique business names

      • Taxes are being paid

  • Articles of incorporationis a legal authorization from the federal or provincial/territorial government for a company to use the corporate format.

Other types of corporations

Other Types of Corporations

  • Non-resident corporation

    • Conducts business in Canada, but has its head office outside of Canada.

  • Non-profit corporation

    • Formed for charitable or socially beneficial purposes.

  • Crown corporation

    • Are companies that only the federal or a provincial government can set up.

  • Professional corporation

    • Is a Canadian-controlled private corporation engaged in providing professional services.

Progress assessment1

Progress Assessment

  • What are the major advantages and disadvantages of incorporating a business?

  • What is the role of owners (stockholders) in the corporate hierarchy?

  • If you buy stock in a corporation and someone is injured by one of the corporation’s products, can you personally be sued? Why or why not?

Sweet opportunities

Sweet Opportunities

You are a consultant, and will make a recommendation as to what form of business ownership you think is best for each client.



  • Liability can be an issue for sole proprietorships and partnerships when:

  • Debts are owed when a business fails or has financial difficulties;

  • If not insured, when there is loss due to disaster;

  • Lawsuits occur

Finance options

Finance Options

  • Corporations have more options when they need to obtain additional financing (loans, investments in the form of stocks and/or corporate bonds).

  • Sole proprietors and partners often have personal assets as their only source of money (they can maybe borrow from banks, friends, family).

Tax implications

Tax Implications

  • Sole proprietors and partners pay individual income tax on their companies’ earnings.

  • Double Taxation – a corporation is taxed as a separate entity that pays tax on its income. Stockholders also pay personal income tax on any dividends they make.

Life of the business

Life of the Business

  • Sole proprietorshipsand partnerships may dissolve in the event of the death or illness of the owner.

  • Disagreements may lead to partnerships breaking up.

  • Corporations continue to exist beyond personal circumstances.

Discussion questions

Discussion Questions

  • Why do you think so many corporations begin as sole proprietorships or partnerships?

  • Why do you think so many sole proprietorships and partnerships become corporations?



Vertical merger companies in different stages in related industries

Vertical Merger(companies in different stages in related industries)

Horizontal merger companies in the same industry

Horizontal Merger(companies in the same industry)

Conglomerate merger companies in unrelated industries

Conglomerate Merger(companies in unrelated industries)







  • Management and marketing assistance

  • Personal ownership

  • Nationally recognized name

  • Financial advice and assistance

  • Lower failure rate

  • Large start-up costs

  • Shared profit

  • Management regulation

  • Coattail effects

  • Restrictions on selling

  • Fraudulent franchisors

How much does a franchise cost

How Much Does a Franchise Cost?

Checklist for evaluating a franchise

Checklist for Evaluating a Franchise

  • How much equity capital will you need to purchase the franchise and operate it until your income equals your expenses?

  • Does the franchisor offer financing for a portion of the franchising fees? On what terms?

  • Are you prepared to give up some independence of action to secure the advantages offered by the franchise? Do you have your family’s support?

  • Does the industry appeal to you? Are you ready to spend much or all of the remainder of your business life with this franchisor, offering its products or services to the public?

Home based franchises

Home-based Franchises

  • Advantages

    • Relief from the stress of commuting

    • Extra time for family activities and

    • Low overhead expenses

  • Disadvantages

    • Feeling of isolation

      • Home-based franchisees feel less isolated than home-based entrepreneurs.

      • Experienced franchisors share their knowledge of building a profitable enterprise with franchisees.

E commerce in franchising

E-Commerce in Franchising

  • PropertyGuys.com is an example of a franchise that uses e-commerce

    • Formed in 1998 in Moncton, NB. PropertyGuys.com has built on the“For Sale by Owner (FSBO)” Internet concept.

    • Packages include a combination of print advertising, direct mail, electronic mail, seller’s documentation, a For Sale sign, a website listing, and a phone answering service.

Franchising in international markets

Franchising in International Markets

  • The US is by far the most popular target for Canadian-based franchises.

  • Tim Horton’s

    • Paul House, COO and president of Tim Horton’s plans to operate 500 stores in the US by the end of the decade. Currently, there are about 250 stores.

  • Beavertail’s Pastry

    • Introduced in Ottawa in 1978, there are now more than 130 locations in seven countries.

  • What makes franchising successful in international markets is what makes it successful domestically; convenience and predictable level of service.

Co operative


An organization that is owned by members and customers, who pay an annual membership fee and share in any profits.

Co operatives


  • 4/10 Canadians are members of at least one co-op.

  • There are more than 9,000 co-operatives in Canada that employ 155,000 people.

  • Some co-ops are listed in Canada’s top 500 companies and several financial co-operatives have been rated the best places to work in Canada.

  • Fishermen and farmers catch and produce their own products, but part of the marketing is done through jointly owned co-ops.

Co operatives differ from other businesses

Co-operatives Differ fromOther Businesses

  • Purpose – meet the common needs of the members

  • Control structure1 Member = 1 Vote

  • Allocation of profit – share profits among their member-owners on the basis of how much they use the co-op, not how many shares they hold

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