Energy a balancing act
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Energy – a balancing act. Sarah Schenker Nutrition Scientist Georgine Leung Nutrition Scientist 16 th June 2010. Overview. What is energy? Energy balance: In vs. Out. What is energy?. The power to do work, or produce heat or light. Measured in kilojoules (kJ) or megajoules (MJ).

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Energy – a balancing act

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Energy a balancing act

Energy – a balancing act

Sarah Schenker

Nutrition Scientist

Georgine Leung

Nutrition Scientist

16th June 2010


Overview

Overview

  • What is energy?

  • Energy balance: In vs. Out


What is energy

What is energy?

  • The power to do work, or produce heat or light.

  • Measured in kilojoules (kJ) or megajoules (MJ).

1kJ = 1000J

1MJ = 1000kJ

1kcal = 4.18kJ


Energy from food

Energy from food

Macronutrients:

Carbohydrate

(16kJ/g)

Protein

(17kJ/g)

Fat

(37kJ/g)


Alcohol

Alcohol?

1 gram of alcohol provides 29kJ.


Nutrient contribution to energy

Nutrient contribution to energy


Energy intakes

Energy intakes

  • Estimated Average Requirements (EARs)


Question

Question

If we include alcohol in our diet, provision of energy from which macronutrient should decrease?


Energy needs vary

Energy needs vary

  • Basal metabolic rate (BMR)

    - Age

    - Sex

    - Body size/composition

  • Level of physical activity


Basal metabolic rate bmr

Basal metabolic rate (BMR)

  • Rate of energy use to maintain basic functions of the body.

  • Accounts for 75% of an individual’s energy needs.

  • Men usually have a higher BMR than women.


Physical activity levels pal

Physical activity levels (PAL)

  • Intensity and duration.

  • Children and young people:

    at least 60 mins (every day).

  • With activities for bone strength, muscle strength and flexibility.

  • Adults:

    at least 30 mins (5 times per week).

Energy expenditure = BMR x PAL


Why do men have higher bmrs

Why do men have higher BMRs?

  • Men tend to have more muscle.

  • Men tend to be bigger.

  • Both of the above.

  • Men tend to be more active.

  • All of the above.


Key stages in life

Key stages in life

Children

Adults

Adolescents

Older adults


Energy balance

Energy in

Food and drinks

Energy out

Activity

Energy balance


How much activity

How much activity?

Walking the dog

Swimming

Watching TV

Running


Positive energy balance

Energy out

Activity

Energy in

Food and drinks

Positive energy balance


Being overweight and obese increases risk of

Being overweight and obese increases risk of:

  • certain cancers;

  • heart disease;

  • Stroke;

  • Type 2 Diabetes.


Negative energy balance

Energy in

Food and drinks

Energy out

Activity

Negative energy balance


Being underweight increases risk of

Being underweight increases risk of:

  • hair loss;

  • dry, patchy skin;

  • weakened immune system;

  • osteoporosis;

  • infertility;

  • heart failure.


Monitoring energy balance

Monitoring energy balance

  • It is very important to achieve a healthy weight

  • Body Mass Index (BMI) =

weight (kg) .

height (m) x height (m)

Recommended BMI range (kg/m2)

Underweightless than 18.5

Normal18.5 - less than 25

Overweight25 - less than 30

Obese30 - 40

Very obeseover 40


How balanced are we

How balanced are we?

How many people in the UK are overweight or obese?

(Please express your answers in percentage.)


Energy a balancing act

BNF is grateful for financial support from

the Agricultural and Horticultural Development Board

to enable us to develop these eSeminars.

For further information, go to:www.nutrition.org.ukwww.foodafactoflife.org.uk


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