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Energy – a balancing act. Sarah Schenker Nutrition Scientist Georgine Leung Nutrition Scientist 16 th June 2010. Overview. What is energy? Energy balance: In vs. Out. What is energy?. The power to do work, or produce heat or light. Measured in kilojoules (kJ) or megajoules (MJ).

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Energy a balancing act

Energy – a balancing act

Sarah Schenker

Nutrition Scientist

Georgine Leung

Nutrition Scientist

16th June 2010


Overview
Overview

  • What is energy?

  • Energy balance: In vs. Out


What is energy
What is energy?

  • The power to do work, or produce heat or light.

  • Measured in kilojoules (kJ) or megajoules (MJ).

1kJ = 1000J

1MJ = 1000kJ

1kcal = 4.18kJ


Energy from food
Energy from food

Macronutrients:

Carbohydrate

(16kJ/g)

Protein

(17kJ/g)

Fat

(37kJ/g)


Alcohol
Alcohol?

1 gram of alcohol provides 29kJ.



Energy intakes
Energy intakes

  • Estimated Average Requirements (EARs)


Question
Question

If we include alcohol in our diet, provision of energy from which macronutrient should decrease?


Energy needs vary
Energy needs vary

  • Basal metabolic rate (BMR)

    - Age

    - Sex

    - Body size/composition

  • Level of physical activity


Basal metabolic rate bmr
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)

  • Rate of energy use to maintain basic functions of the body.

  • Accounts for 75% of an individual’s energy needs.

  • Men usually have a higher BMR than women.


Physical activity levels pal
Physical activity levels (PAL)

  • Intensity and duration.

  • Children and young people:

    at least 60 mins (every day).

  • With activities for bone strength, muscle strength and flexibility.

  • Adults:

    at least 30 mins (5 times per week).

Energy expenditure = BMR x PAL


Why do men have higher bmrs
Why do men have higher BMRs?

  • Men tend to have more muscle.

  • Men tend to be bigger.

  • Both of the above.

  • Men tend to be more active.

  • All of the above.


Key stages in life
Key stages in life

Children

Adults

Adolescents

Older adults


Energy balance

Energy in

Food and drinks

Energy out

Activity

Energy balance


How much activity
How much activity?

Walking the dog

Swimming

Watching TV

Running


Positive energy balance

Energy out

Activity

Energy in

Food and drinks

Positive energy balance


Being overweight and obese increases risk of
Being overweight and obese increases risk of:

  • certain cancers;

  • heart disease;

  • Stroke;

  • Type 2 Diabetes.


Negative energy balance

Energy in

Food and drinks

Energy out

Activity

Negative energy balance


Being underweight increases risk of
Being underweight increases risk of:

  • hair loss;

  • dry, patchy skin;

  • weakened immune system;

  • osteoporosis;

  • infertility;

  • heart failure.


Monitoring energy balance
Monitoring energy balance

  • It is very important to achieve a healthy weight

  • Body Mass Index (BMI) =

weight (kg) .

height (m) x height (m)

Recommended BMI range (kg/m2)

Underweight less than 18.5

Normal 18.5 - less than 25

Overweight 25 - less than 30

Obese 30 - 40

Very obese over 40


How balanced are we
How balanced are we?

How many people in the UK are overweight or obese?

(Please express your answers in percentage.)


BNF is grateful for financial support from

the Agricultural and Horticultural Development Board

to enable us to develop these eSeminars.

For further information, go to:www.nutrition.org.ukwww.foodafactoflife.org.uk


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