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## PowerPoint Slideshow about 'The Research Problem' - emmett

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### The Research Problem

PE 357

Selecting the problem

- Can be for research or a literature review
- To break the problem down more …
- needs to be of interest to you
- can ask professors
- go with your own hunches
- read text books

Once the basic problem is defined..

- You need to do a literature search for background information
- Search conceptual literature – written material by experts or authorities
- Search related research – studies to learn what is known on the subject

Does the problem need further study?

- 1) Is it still interesting?
- 2) is it worthwhile?
- 3) is it manageable?
- Best way to do research is to develop an outline

A research proposal consists of three chapters

- 1) Introduction
- 2) Review of Literature
- 3) Methodology

Title

- often the last decision
- takes crafting
- can’t be too long but also needs to be long enough to get the content across

General rules for titles

- 1) Keep it clear and descriptive for indexing
- 2) Identify key variables and scope
- (I.e., does the title precisely identify the problem
- 3) Avoid unnecessary phrases: “effect of”, “relationship between”, “analysis of”, “a review of”

Introducing the problem

- leader paragraphs
- hour glass approach
- specify the problem
- provide rationale (why is it important?)

Introducing the Problem Cont...

- use broad references but leave the literature review to the literature review section
- the introduction can be quite short
- provide the purpose (why) and problem (what) statement
- watch the term “the study investigated…”

Developing the hypotheses

- Expected results based on theory or experience
- Stated as outcomes
- Null hypotheses
- No significant differences or relationships
- Used for statistical tests

More on Hypotheses

- 1) should be based on theory or previous findings
- 2) should state a relationship between at least two variables
- 3) simple statement
- 4) can be tested
- 5) can be refuted
- 6) related to design, procedures, and statistical technique

Writing the Introduction

- Omit technical jargon.
- Know who you are writing for.
- Write introduction after the problem, purpose, and hypotheses.
- Catch the reader’s attention!

significance of the study(I.e., why?)

- knowledge gaps
- more and better knowledge is needed
- present knowledge needs validation
- present knowledge needs clarification
- solution to the problem needs to be found

Define

- Independent variables (IV)
- Dependent variables (DV)
- Extraneous variables (EV)

Making Your Problem and Hypotheses Clear

- Operational definitions
- Key terms with specific meaning
- Assumptions
- Limitations
- Possible shortcomings
- Delimitations
- Characteristics imposed by the researcher

Examples of limitations

- Research design
- sampling problems
- uncontrolled variables
- faulty independent variables
- faulty dependent variables

How do we control for Extraneous Variables?

- Random Selection
- Matching
- Removal
- Statistical Control

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