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Have I been criticized?. Campbell’s (1982) comments as outgoing editor of the Journal of Applied Psychology ( JAP ) :.

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Campbell s 1982 comments as outgoing editor of the journal of applied psychology jap
Campbell’s (1982) comments as outgoing editor of the Journal of Applied Psychology (JAP):

  • …with perhaps one or two exceptions there has been very little opportunity to exercise any professional biases [as editor of JAP]. One possible exception pertains to the use of a self-report questionnaire to measure all the variables in a study. If there is no evident construct validity for the questionnaire measure or no variables that are measured independently of the questionnaire, I am biased against the study and believe that it contributes very little. (p. 692)


What are reviewers concerns about mv

Ti

Mj

Xij

Eij

What are reviewers’ concerns about MV?

  • One possibility: compromised construct validity:

    • From CTT: Xij = Ti + Mj + Eij,


What are reviewers concerns about mv1

Mj

Xij

Ti

Xi’j

Ti’

Eij

Ei’j

What are reviewers’ concerns about MV?

  • Second possibility: covariance distortion due to CMV:

    • Again, from CTT:

    • Perhaps interestingly:


What are reviewers complaints about mv
What are reviewers’ complaints about MV?

  • Third possibility: effects of related methods:

  • This formula is for a heterotrait-heteromethod correlation in a MTMM design

  • Covariance distortion can still incur with different methods as long as the methods’ effects (lMs) are not inconsequential and methods are related (FMjMj’)


What are best analytic approaches to demonstrating lack of cmv
What are best analytic approaches to demonstrating lack of CMV?

  • CFA of MTMM data – is this the gold standard?

  • Williams and Anderson’s (1994) approach using substantive method-related variables

  • Lindell and Whitney’s (2001) partial correlation approach

  • Need research that compares these approaches to highlight advantages of each


Discussions and disputes on cmv

1 CMV?

2

.

.

.

.

.

Traits

N

.

.

.

Subjects

2

T

1

1 2 . . . . . M

Methods

Discussions and disputes on CMV?

  • Do not make the default assumption that “if it ain’t trait it must be method."


Discussions and disputes on cmv1
Discussions and disputes on CMV? CMV?

  • Very unfortunate consequences for at least two bodies of literature

    • Rater sources in 360o ratings are not mere methods

    • Assessment center exercises are not mere methods

  • Occasions of measurement and state-trait-occasion models

  • Locate one’s measurement design within a broader multidimensional data array reminiscent of Cattell’s (1966) “data box”


Prototype multidimensional data array
Prototype multidimensional data array CMV?

  • Persons (or groups or collectivities)

  • Focal constructs

  • Occasions of measurement

  • Situations

  • Observers or recorders

  • Response modalities

    • Example – 360o as persons x constructs x observers

    • Example – AC as persons x constructs x situations