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Energy Environment Economy: Motivation for Energy Efficient Manufacturing. Kelly Kissock Ph.D., P.E. Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Renewable and Clean Energy Program University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio. What on Earth Are These?. World Energy Use. World Population.

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Energy environment economy motivation for energy efficient manufacturing

Energy Environment Economy:Motivation for Energy Efficient Manufacturing

Kelly Kissock Ph.D., P.E.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Renewable and Clean Energy Program

University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio

What on Earth Are These?

World Energy Use

World Population

World Gross


Converting heat to work
Converting Heat to Work

Since pre-history we knew how to:



Industrial Revolution to:



Newcomen s steam engine 1712
Newcomen’s Steam Engine~1712

Revolutionary change transforms
Revolutionary Change Transforms

  • Economy: textile production increases 150 fold and prices drop 90%

  • Place: cities grow from 5% to 50%

  • Family: parents leave home to work

  • Geography: steam ship and railroad

  • Technology

  • Population

Economic explosion
Economic Explosion

  • Pre-industrial revolution per capita annual income: $600

  • Industrial revolution US/Europe income $600 to $18,000

  • Increases 30x!

The nature of wealth
The Nature of Wealth

  • Today, generating 1-hp requires:

    • 32 lb motor (30x less)

    • 4 x 6 inches (12x less)

    • costs $250 /year to power (20x less)

  • James Watt observed that a horse pulling 180 pounds of force made 144 trips around the circle in an hour, at an average speed of 181 feet per minute = 33,000 ft. lbs. per minute = one “horsepower”.

  • Generating 1 hp required:

    • 1,500 lb horse

    • 6 ft tall

    • costs $5,000 /yr to board

We ve come a long way
We’ve Come a Long Way…

  • Newcomen’s steam engine: 0.5%

  • Watt’s steam engine: 1%

  • Gasoline engines: 30%

  • Coal Rankine cycles: 35%

  • Turbines: 40%

  • Diesel engines: 50%

  • Combined-cycle turbine/Rankine engines: 60%

But energy conversion largely unchanged
But Energy Conversion Largely Unchanged…

1. Use hydrocarbon fossil fuels

2. Employ combustion to release heat

CH4+2(O2 + 3.76 N2)=CO2+2H20+(NOx+SOx+…)

3. Convert heat to work via thermal expansion

84 of world energy from fossil fuels

In U.S. 86% from non-renewable fossil fuels

Source: U.S. D.O.E. Annual Energy Review 2005

84% Of World Energy From Fossil Fuels

Resource constraints
Resource Constraints

M. King Hubbert

Hubbert s 1956 prediction of us oil peak
Hubbert’s 1956 Prediction of US Oil Peak

Actual u s oil production peaks in 1972
Actual U.S. Oil Production (Peaks in 1972)


Hubbert s 1956 prediction of world oil peak
Hubbert’s 1956 Prediction ofWorld Oil Peak

Cambell s world oil peak
Cambell’s World Oil Peak

World oil near peak production
World OilNear Peak Production

Peak production = 2015

Based on 1,800 BB “World Oil Resources’, WRI 1994

World natural gas near peak production
World Natural GasNear Peak Production

Peak production = 2018

Based on 6,044 TCF ‘World Dry Natural Gas Reserves’, Oil and Gas Journal, IEA 2004

World coal peak production 2050
World CoalPeak Production 2050?

Peak production = 2060

Based on 997,506 MT ‘World Estimated Recoverable Coal’, IEA 2004

Consequences of peak fuel
Consequences of Peak Fuel

  • Rising demand and falling supply rapidly increases fuel prices

  • Rising fuel prices reduce expendable income and cause recessions

  • Rising fuel prices drain fuel importing economies and increase trade deficits

  • Competition for dwindling supply increase national security risks

  • Rising fuel prices support undemocratic regimes (Russia, Middle East, Venezuela, etc.)

Environmental perspective
Environmental Perspective

“Using energy in today’s ways leads

to more environmental damage than

any other peaceful human activity.”

The Economist, 1990.

Global co 2 concentration
Global CO2 Concentration

  • Keeling Curve: Mauna Loa, Hawaii

  • 2005 Concentration: ~380 ppm

Coincident global warming
Coincident Global Warming

Hansen, J., “Is There Still Time to Avoid Dangerous Anthropogenic Interference with Global Climate?”, American Geophysical Union, 2005.

Molecules with odd number atoms co 2 ch 4 trap heat
Molecules with Odd Number Atoms (CO2 CH4) Trap Heat

“Changing Climate”, Stephen Schneider, Scientific American, 10/1989

Historical temperature co 2 correlation
Historical Temperature CO2 Correlation

“Changing Climate”, Stephen Schneider, Scientific American, 10/1989

Greenhouse gas trends
Greenhouse Gas Trends

Intergovernmental Panel

on Climate Change, 2001,

“Summary for Policymakers”

Result earth quickly warming
Result: Earth Quickly Warming

Hansen et al., Journal Geophysical Research

Warming fastest at pole
Warming Fastest at Pole

“Changing Climate”, Stephen Schneider, Scientific American, 10/1989

And …

  • Rising sea level and low-level flooding

  • Drought

  • Severe weather

  • Mass extinctions (30% of species lose range)

  • Accelerating non-linear irreversible process

    • Methane release from thawing “perma-frost”

    • Lower albedo from decreasing ice cover…

Cincinnati days 90 f 18 current to 45 low emissions or 85 high emissions
Cincinnati Days > 90 F 18 (Current) to 45 (Low Emissions) or 85 (High Emissions)

Source: Confronting Climate Change in the U.S. Midwest: Ohio, Union of Concerned Scientists, 2009

Spring rainfall increases 30 high emission
Spring Rainfall Increases 30% (High Emission)

Source: Confronting Climate Change in the U.S. Midwest: Ohio, Union of Concerned Scientists, 2009


  • Consensus view from:

    • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

    • Every U.S. scientific body (NAS, AMS, AGU, AAAS)

    • Every G8 National Academy of Science’

  • Literature review (Oreskes, Science, Vol. 306, 2004):

    • All scientific peer-reviewed journals from 1993 – 2004 with key words “climate change”.

    • Found 983 papers

    • NONE disagreed with consensus position

“The need for urgent action to address climate change is now indisputable.”

U.S. National Academy of Sciences and counterpart academies from 12 other nations. 2009

Linear model of production
Linear Model of Production now indisputable.”

Fossil Fuel Resources


Running Out of Energy Resources While Atmosphere Filling Up

Fossil Fuel


CO2 &


Energy Out


Ecological model of production
Ecological Model of Production now indisputable.”



State Renewable Electricity Standards now indisputable.”

29 States and District of Columbia

Ohio: 12.5% of electricity from renewable energy by 2025



Source: Securing the Transition to a Clean and Sustainable Energy Economy, Deyette, J., Union Concerned Scientists, 2011

Us co 2 stabilization scenario ases
US CO now indisputable.”2 Stabilization Scenario (ASES)

Kutscher, C., “Tackling Climate Change in the US”, Solar Today, March, 2007

Energy efficiency lowest cost source of new power
Energy Efficiency now indisputable.”Lowest Cost Source of “New Power”

Source: A Risky Proposition, Union of Concerned Scientists, 2011

Reduce u s co 2 by 20 at negative cost i e while making money
Reduce U.S. CO now indisputable.”2 by 20% at Negative Cost (i.e. while making money)

Source:Reducing U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions: How Much at What Cost?”, McKinsey and Company, December 2007

Energy efficiency in the u s
Energy Efficiency in the U.S. now indisputable.”

Source: Laitner, S., American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy,

Testimony before the Joint Economic Committee, U.S. Congress, June 25, 2008

Energy efficiency in california
Energy Efficiency in California now indisputable.”

Source: Rosenthal, A. California Energy Commission, 2006

Energy efficiency in ohio
Energy Efficiency in Ohio now indisputable.”

  • 22% of electricity from efficiency savings by 2025 (AEP at

  • All new schools must be LEED Silver

  • The Ohio Department of Development: grants and loans (

  • U.S. Department of Energy: no-cost industrial energy assessments (

International standards
International Standards now indisputable.”

ISO Standards

  • 9001 Quality

  • 14001 Environment

  • 50001 Energy

    • Requires energy management personnel and organizations within a company to determine baseline energy use, determine energy efficiency targets, identify and implement energy efficiency opportunities, measure effectiveness of energy efficiency improvements.

Energy engineering courses at ud
Energy Engineering Courses at UD now indisputable.”

  • MEE 420/569: Energy Efficient Buildings

  • MEE 478/578: Energy Efficient Manufacturing

  • MEE 590: Geothermal Energy Sources

  • MEE 590: Wind Energy Systems

  • MEE 590: Solar Energy Engineering

  • MEE 524: Electrochemical Power

  • MEE 507: Advanced Energy Materials

  • MEE 590: Thermal System Analysis

  • MEE 471/571: Design of Thermal Systems

  • MEE 473/573: Renewable Energy Systems

  • MEE 472: Design for Environment

  • MEE 499/599: Environmental Sustainability

  • MEE 590: Building Energy Informatics


Energy Efficiency now indisputable.”

Increases business competitiveness

Increase resource availability

Increases environmental health

Energy Efficiency is



Thank you
Thank you! now indisputable.”

Europe s plan for a low carbon economy
“Europe’s Plan For a now indisputable.”Low-Carbon Economy”

Over the coming decade raising the EU’s climate target from 20% to 30% can foster the following outcomes by 2020:

  • Increase the growth rate up to 0.6% per year

  • Create up to 6 million additional jobs Europe-wide

  • Boost European investments from 18% to up to 22% of GDP

  • Increase GDP by up to 6%

Source: “A New Growth Path for Europe: Generating Prosperity and Jobs in the Low-Carbon Economy”, European Climate Forum e.V., Potsdam, Germany, 2011

Us co 2 stabilization scenario nrdc
US CO now indisputable.”2 Stabilization Scenario (NRDC)

Socolow and Pacala, Scientific American, September, 2006

Energy efficiency in california1
Energy Efficiency in California now indisputable.”

Source: Rosenfeld, A. and McAuliffe, P., “Opportunities in the Building Sector: Managing Climate Change”, International Seminar on Planetary Emergencies, Erice, Sicily” August 2007

Rising sea level low elevation flooding
Rising Sea Level now indisputable.”& Low Elevation Flooding

Government programs
Government Programs now indisputable.”

  • U.S. Department of Energy

    • Energy audits

      • Whole plant energy audits by universities for mid-sized manufacturers

      • Steam, process heating, compressed air and pump energy audits for large manufactures

    • Energy system software and best practice case studies

  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    • E3 energy, waste and productivity audits

  • Ohio utilities must improve energy efficiency by 20% by 2020

    • DPL, Duke, AEP offer rebates on energy efficient equipment and retrofits.