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Do You Remember?. What element is this?. How many P, N, & E?. 29 63.5. C. What do we call these types of atoms?. What type of bond?. What type of bond?. What type of bond?. Hint: these are water molecules). What type of bond?. What do these have in common?. Big Bang

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what type of bond2
What type of bond?

Hint: these are water molecules)

what do these have in common
What do these have in common?
  • Big Bang
  • Fusion in stars
  • Supernovas
which list makes up 90 whole earth
Which list makes up 90+% WHOLE earth?

Iron 35-40%

Oxygen 25-30 %

Silicon 13-15%

Magnesium 10%

Oxygen 47%

Silicon 28 %

Aluminum 8%

Iron 5%

How do you know?

mineral families
Mineral Families

You can tell which family a mineral belongs to by looking at its formula.

There are 9 families to learn:

native elements
Native elements
  • Minerals that are from 1 element
    • Gold: Au
    • Copper: Cu
    • Silver: Ag
    • Carbon: C
    • Sulfur: S
2 halides
2. Halides
  • Halogen Group.
  • Halite: NaCl – salt, rock salt
  • Fluorite: CaF2
3 oxides
3. Oxides
  • Minerals with oxygen
    • Ice H20
    • Corundum Al2O3
    • Hematite (Fe2O3)
    • Magnetite (Fe3O4),
4 sulfides
4. Sulfides
  • Minerals with sulfur; rotten egg smell
      • Galena (PbS for lead used in pipes and bullets),
      • Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2, copper & iron ore AKA fool’s gold)
      • Pyrrhotite (Fe4S)
      • Pyrite – Iron ore – cars, steel buildings (FeS2)
      • Sphalorite - ZnS
      • Bornite – Cu5FeS4 copper ore – pipes, wire
5 carbonates
5. Carbonates
  • Minerals with Carbonate (C03)
      • Calcite – (CaCO3), – very abundant
      • Dolomite – (CaMg(CO3)2) lime
      • Azurite - Cu3(CO3)2
      • Malachite – Cu2(CO3)( copper ore and ornamental
6 sulfates
6. Sulfates
  • Minerals with Sulfate S04
      • gypsum (CaSO4 · 2H2O), – plaster of Paris, wall board
      • barite (BaSO4)
7 hydroxides
7. Hydroxides
  • Minerals with a metal plus hydroxide (OH-)
      • limonite (iron hydroxide) Fe40i(OH)2
      • bauxite (aluminum hydroxide) Al(OH)3
8 phosphates
8. Phosphates
  • Minerals with a metal plus phosphate (PO4)
    • Apatite - Ca5(PO4)3F
9 silicates
9. Silicates
  • Minerals with silicate tetrahedron SiO4
  • 90% of rock forming minerals
  • Not ores
  • Examples: Quartz (most common mineral)

Opal, talc, mica, hornblende, topaz, feldspar,olivine

Look for Si O in formulas

KAlSi3O8, Al2SiO4, SiO2*H2O

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