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Do You Remember?. What element is this?. How many P, N, & E?. 29 63.5. C. What do we call these types of atoms?. What type of bond?. What type of bond?. What type of bond?. Hint: these are water molecules). What type of bond?. What do these have in common?. Big Bang

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Do You Remember?

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Do You Remember?


What element is this?


How many P, N, & E?

29

63.5

C


What do we call these types of atoms?


What type of bond?


What type of bond?


What type of bond?

Hint: these are water molecules)


What type of bond?


What do these have in common?

  • Big Bang

  • Fusion in stars

  • Supernovas


Which list makes up 90+% WHOLE earth?

Iron 35-40%

Oxygen 25-30 %

Silicon 13-15%

Magnesium 10%

Oxygen 47%

Silicon 28 %

Aluminum 8%

Iron 5%

How do you know?


4 Characteristics of ALL Minerals

1.

2.

3.

4.


Mineral Families

You can tell which family a mineral belongs to by looking at its formula.

There are 9 families to learn:


Native elements

  • Minerals that are from 1 element

    • Gold: Au

    • Copper: Cu

    • Silver: Ag

    • Carbon: C

    • Sulfur: S


2. Halides

  • Halogen Group.

  • Halite: NaCl – salt, rock salt

  • Fluorite: CaF2


3. Oxides

  • Minerals with oxygen

    • Ice H20

    • Corundum Al2O3

    • Hematite (Fe2O3)

    • Magnetite (Fe3O4),


4. Sulfides

  • Minerals with sulfur; rotten egg smell

    • Galena (PbS for lead used in pipes and bullets),

    • Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2, copper & iron ore AKA fool’s gold)

    • Pyrrhotite (Fe4S)

    • Pyrite – Iron ore – cars, steel buildings (FeS2)

    • Sphalorite - ZnS

    • Bornite – Cu5FeS4 copper ore – pipes, wire


5. Carbonates

  • Minerals with Carbonate (C03)

    • Calcite – (CaCO3), – very abundant

    • Dolomite – (CaMg(CO3)2) lime

    • Azurite - Cu3(CO3)2

    • Malachite – Cu2(CO3)( copper ore and ornamental


6. Sulfates

  • Minerals with Sulfate S04

    • gypsum (CaSO4 · 2H2O), – plaster of Paris, wall board

    • barite (BaSO4)


7. Hydroxides

  • Minerals with a metal plus hydroxide (OH-)

    • limonite (iron hydroxide) Fe40i(OH)2

    • bauxite (aluminum hydroxide) Al(OH)3


8. Phosphates

  • Minerals with a metal plus phosphate (PO4)

    • Apatite - Ca5(PO4)3F


9. Silicates

  • Minerals with silicate tetrahedron SiO4

  • 90% of rock forming minerals

  • Not ores

  • Examples: Quartz (most common mineral)

    Opal, talc, mica, hornblende, topaz, feldspar,olivine

    Look for Si O in formulas

    KAlSi3O8, Al2SiO4, SiO2*H2O


Different Arrangements of SiO4


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