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THE BLOOD PLASMA. Lecture -1 Dr. Zahoor Ali Shaikh. BLOOD. We will discuss i). Compositions and Functions of Blood, Plasma ii). Hematocrit iii). Plasma Protein. BLOOD. What is Blood ?

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THE BLOOD PLASMA

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THE BLOODPLASMA

Lecture -1

Dr. Zahoor Ali Shaikh


BLOOD

  • We will discuss

    i). Compositions and Functions of Blood, Plasma

    ii). Hematocrit

    iii). Plasma Protein


BLOOD

  • What is Blood ?

  • It is transport medium in the body. It transports O2 and substances absorbed from GIT [Gastro Intestinal Tract] to the tissues and returns CO2 to lungs and products of metabolism to the kidneys.


BLOOD

  • Functions of Blood

  • Carries O2 to the tissues and transports CO2 from the tissues to the lungs.

  • Transport of materials between the cells.

  • Buffers changes in pH.

  • Helps in regulation of body temperature.

  • Plays major role in body defense system.

  • Minimizes blood loss, when blood vessel is damaged [blood clotting].


BLOOD

  • What is composition of Blood ?

  • It has

    1. Plasma – 55%

    2. Cells - 45%

    Cells are

    -Erythrocytes [RBC - Red Blood Cells]

    -Leukocytes [WBC – White Blood Cells]

    -Platelets


BLOOD [CELLS] cont.

  • RBCs have membrane and contain hemoglobin that transport O2 in the blood.

  • WBCs work for defense of body, and have immune system.

  • Platelets play important role in blood clotting [Hemostasis].


BLOOD

  • What is Hematocrit or Packed Cell Volume [PCV]?

  • It is ratio of cells [RBC, WBC, Platelet] to the plasma.

  • PCV - 45% [40 to 47%]

    Plasma - 55%.


BLOOD

  • Important Information

  • Blood represents about 8% of body weight.

  • Average volume of blood

    In women – 5 liters

    In men – 5.5 liters

  • pH of Blood – 7.4 [slightly alkaline]

  • Blood specific gravity 1.055

  • Blood viscosity is two and half times that of water.


TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGEQ1. What is the Blood volume of New born baby?

Answer: About 280 ml.


PLASMA

We will discuss PLASMA:

  • What is PLASMA ?

  • It is fluid portion of blood, straw colored.

  • Composition of Plasma:

    - water – 90%

    - inorganic constituents – 1%

    E.g. Electrolytes – Na+, Cl-, K+, HCO3-,Ca2+

    They play role in membrane excitability.


COMPOSITION OF PLASMA [cont.]

  • Organic constituents

    - Plasma protein – 6 – 8%

    - Other organic substances present e.g. Glucose, amino acids, lipids and vitamins.

  • Waste products – urea, creatinine, bilirubin.

  • Dissolved gases – O2 and CO2

  • Hormones


SERUM

  • WHAT IS SERUM ?

  • Serum has same composition as Plasma except that its fibrinogen and other clotting factors have been removed.

  • Plasma clots on the standing but serum does not clot.


PLASMA PROTEIN

  • Plasma Protein are

    1. Albumin 3.5 – 5 g/dl

    2. Globulin 2.5 g/dl

    3. Fibrinogen 0.3 g/dl

  • Plasma Protein can not pass through capillary pores, therefore, they have colloid osmotic pressure [Oncotic pressure] of 25 mmHg which holds the water inside and maintains plasma volume.


PLASMA PROTEIN FUNCTIONS

  • Specific function of each protein:

  • Albumin 3.5 – 5 g/dl, most abundant

    - molecular weight 69000

    - half life 20 days

    - synthesized in liver

    - Plasma osmotic pressure is mainly due to

    albumin (80-90%).


PLASMA PROTEIN FUNCTIONS

  • Albumin [cont]

    - Albumin binds to many substances e.g. bilirubin, bile salts, penicillin for transport in the plasma.


PLASMA PROTEIN FUNCTIONS

2. Globulins – molecular weight 156,000

- 3 subclasses

(i). Alpha [α]

(ii). Beta [β]

(iii) Gamma [γ]

Function of Alpha & Beta Globulins

  • They carry substances like thyroid hormones, cholesterol, iron, lipids, insulin, vitamins A, D, K.

  • Many blood clotting factors are alpha or beta globulin.

  • Angiotensinogin is alpha globulin.


PLASMA PROTEIN FUNCTIONS

Gamma Globulin – Immunoglobulin [Ig]

  • Gamma Globulins are antibodies and play important role in body defense mechanism.

  • Immunoglobulin [Ig] are

    - IgG – work for defense of body - IgM – work for defense of body

    - IgA – present in secretion e.g. saliva, breast milk, intestinal secretion

    - IgD – recognize antigen

    - IgE – play role in allergic reaction


PLASMA PROTEIN

3. Fibrinogen

- molecular weight 400,000

- Fibrinogen play key factor in blood clotting.

  • Important Note

    - Plasma protein – Albumin, Fibrinogen, Alpha, and Beta Globulin are synthesized in liver, but gamma globulin are produced by plasma cell and

    B- lymphocytes.


APPLIED

  • Hypoproteinemia

    Causes

    - less protein intake

    - protein loss in kidney

    - liver disease, decrease synthesis of protein

    - intestinal disease, less absorption of protein

    - in hypoproteinemia, there is decreased plasma osmotic pressure, therefore, there is Edema [collection of fluid in subcutaneous tissue].


WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW FROM THIS LECTURE ?

  • Composition & Functions of Blood

  • What is Hematocrit or PCV ?

  • Composition & Functions of Plasma

  • Difference between Blood, Plasma, and Serum

  • Normal Blood Volume, Plasma Volume, Plasma Osmotic Pressure

  • Plasma Protein & their Functions

  • Hypoproteinemia and its causes, Edema


THANK YOU


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