Mesopotamia
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Mesopotamia. 5 Characteristics Of Civilization. Bell Ringer For 11/14/2011. What are the 5 characteristics of civilization?. Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia = Greek for “ Land between rivers ” Tigris & Euphrates Located in what is called Fertile Crescent Sumerians (Began about 4000 B.C.E.)

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Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia

5 Characteristics Of Civilization


Bell ringer for 11 14 2011

Bell Ringer For 11/14/2011

  • What are the 5 characteristics of civilization?


Mesopotamia1

Mesopotamia

  • Mesopotamia = Greek for “Land between rivers”

    • Tigris & Euphrates

  • Located in what is called Fertile Crescent

    • Sumerians (Began about 4000 B.C.E.)

    • Assyrians

    • Babylonians

  • No Natural Boundaries

    • Difficult to defend

    • Lacked stone & wood, built walls out of mud bricks


Fertile crescent

Fertile Crescent


Five characteristics of civilization

Five Characteristics Of Civilization

  • Advanced Cities

  • Specialized Workers

  • Complex Institutions

  • Record Keeping & Writing

  • Advanced Technology

  • 2 Important Rulers

    • Sargon of Akkad – Unified Mesopotamia in 2360 BCE

    • Hammurabi – Babylonian emperor, code of laws


1 advanced cities

1. Advanced Cities

  • City-State – A city surrounded by farm land

    • Economic, Political, & Religious Center

  • Rulers of city-states had absolute power & treated like gods

  • Every city had a ziggurat(temple at the center).

  • Ex. Of City-States:

    • Ur & Uruk


2 complex institutions

2. Complex Institutions

  • Ways of organizing people

  • Religion:

    • Polytheistic – believe in many gods

      • Only gods were immortal

      • After death people enter a realm of shadows

      • Feel no pleasure or pain

    • Theocracy – Religious leaders run the government


2 complex institutions1

2. Complex Institutions

  • Ziggurat = city hall & temple

    • Believed gods controlled nature

      • Ex. Angry gods = natural disaster

    • Worshipped gods for protection & good harvests

  • Laws:

    • Hammurabi’s Code of Laws – 285 laws for society


3 specialized workers

3. Specialized Workers

  • Traders/Merchants

    • Goods from distant regions; leads to new cities

    • Cultural diffusion – spread of ideas from culture to culture

    • Participated in bartering (trading goods & services for other goods & services)


3 specialized workers1

3. Specialized Workers

  • Artisans

    • Jewelry, metal-work, pottery, clothing, weapons.


3 specialized workers2

3. Specialized Workers

  • Scribes

    • Educated

    • Understood writing system and record transactions

  • Priests – carryout & maintain religious tradition


4 record keeping writing

4. Record Keeping & Writing

  • Writing made its first appearance in Mesopotamia

  • Cuneiform – means “wedge-shaped”

    • Was written on clay tablets using a reed

    • The impressions were wedge-shaped


5 advanced technology

5. Advanced Technology

  • 3000 BCE

  • The Plow – Could raise more crops

  • The Sailboat & The Wheel

    • Able to move goods quickly

  • The 360 Degree circle & math system based on 60

  • Bronze Working

  • Calender


5 advanced technology1

5. Advanced Technology


Hammurabi s code

Hammurabi’s Code

  • 1792 B.C.E.

  • 282 Laws

  • Copies engraved on stone

  • Uniform code of laws


Hammurabi s code1

Hammurabi’s Code

  • Brought unity to Mesopotamia

  • Punishments from fines to death

  • Protected:

    • Family, Property, Business


Hammurabi s code2

Hammurabi’s Code

  • Intro To The Code Of Laws:

    • “When Marduk [a god] sent me to rule the people and to bring help to the country, I established law and justice in the language of the land…”


Hammurabi s code3

Hammurabi’s Code

  • 4. “If a man bear false witness [lies] in a case….if that case be a case involving life, that man shall be put to death.”

  • 22. “If a man practices robbery and is captured, that man shall be put to death.”

  • 129. If a man's wife be surprised (cheating) with another man, both shall be tied and thrown into the water, but the husband may pardon his wife and the king his slaves.


Hammurabi s code4

Hammurabi’s Code

  • 195. “If a son strike his father, they shall cut off his hand.”

  • 196. “If a man destroy the eye of another man, they shall destroy his eye.”


Ten commandments

Ten Commandments

  • Around 14-12 BCE

  • The biblical story of Moses

  • Given to Moses on Mount Sinai

  • Meant as a guide to people’s lives


Ten commandments1

Ten Commandments

  • Ten Commandments:

  • I am the Lord your God. You shall have no other gods before me.

  • Thou shall have no false gods

  • Thou shall not use the lord’s name in vain

  • Remember the Sabbath & keep it holy

  • Honor your father & mother

  • Thou shalt not kill


Ten commandments2

Ten Commandments

  • Thou shalt not commit adultery

  • Thou shalt not steal

  • Do not wear bear false witness against your neighbor

  • Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor’s wife


Hammurabi vs ten commandments

Hammurabi vs. Ten Commandments

  • What are similarities?

  • What are differences?


Class activity

Class Activity

  • You will be numbered off into groups.

  • You will come up with 5 rules for a successful classroom

  • You have 10 minutes to come up with your rules

  • You will then share your rules with the class


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