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Put Everything in Future (Disk) Controllers (it’s not “if”, it’s “when?”) Jim Gray http://www.research.Microsoft.com/~Gray Acknowledgements : Dave Patterson explained this to me a year ago Kim Keeton Erik Riedel Catharine Van Ingen. Helped me sharpen these arguments. Remember Your Roots.

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Helped me sharpen these arguments

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Slide1 l.jpg

Put Everything in Future (Disk) Controllers(it’s not “if”, it’s “when?”)Jim Grayhttp://www.research.Microsoft.com/~GrayAcknowledgements:Dave Patterson explained this to me a year agoKim KeetonErik RiedelCatharine Van Ingen

Helped me sharpen

these arguments


Remember your roots l.jpg

Remember Your Roots


Technology drivers disks l.jpg

Kilo

Mega

Giga

Tera

Peta

Exa

Zetta

Yotta

Technology Drivers: Disks

  • Disks on track

  • 100x in 10 years 2 TB 3.5” drive

  • Shrink to 1” is 200GB

  • Disk replaces tape?

  • Disk is super computer!


Data gravity processing moves to transducers l.jpg

Data GravityProcessing Moves to Transducers

  • Move Processing to data sources

  • Move to where the power (and sheet metal) is

  • Processor in

    • Modem

    • Display

    • Microphones (speech recognition) & cameras (vision)

    • Storage: Data storage and analysis


It s already true of printers peripheral cyberbrick l.jpg

It’s Already True of PrintersPeripheral = CyberBrick

  • You buy a printer

  • You get a

    • several network interfaces

    • A Postscript engine

      • cpu,

      • memory,

      • software,

      • a spooler (soon)

    • and… a print engine.


All device controllers will be cray 1 s l.jpg

All Device Controllers will be Cray 1’s

Central

Processor & Memory

  • TODAY

    • Disk controller is 10 mips risc engine with 2MB DRAM

    • NIC is similar power

  • SOON

    • Will become 100 mips systems with 100 MB DRAM.

  • They are nodes in a federation(can run Oracle on NT in disk controller).

  • Advantages

    • Uniform programming model

    • Great tools

    • Security

    • economics (CyberBricks)

    • Move computation to data (minimize traffic)

Tera Byte

Backplane


Basic argument for x disks l.jpg

Basic Argument for x-Disks

  • Future disk controller is a super-computer.

    • 1 bips processor

    • 128 MB dram

    • 100 GB disk plus one arm

  • Connects to SAN via high-level protocols

    • RPC, HTTP, DCOM, Kerberos, Directory Services,….

    • Commands are RPCs

    • management, security,….

    • Services file/web/db/… requests

    • Managed by general-purpose OS with good dev environment

  • Move apps to disk to save data movement

    • need programming environment in controller


The slippery slope l.jpg

The Slippery Slope

Nothing =

Sector Server

  • If you add function to server

  • Then you add more function to server

  • Function gravitates to data.

Something =

Fixed App Server

Everything =

App Server


Why not a sector server let s get physical l.jpg

Why Not a Sector Server?(let’s get physical!)

  • Good idea, that’s what we have today.

  • But

    • cache added for performance

    • Sector remap added for fault tolerance

    • error reporting and diagnostics added

    • SCSI commends (reserve,.. are growing)

    • Sharing problematic (space mgmt, security,…)

  • Slipping down the slope to a 2-D block server


Why not a 1 d block server put a little on the disk server l.jpg

Why Not a 1-D Block Server?Put A LITTLE on the Disk Server

  • Tried and true design

    • HSC - VAX cluster

    • EMC

    • IBM Sysplex (3980?)

  • But look inside

    • Has a cache

    • Has space management

    • Has error reporting & management

    • Has RAID 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 50,…

    • Has locking

    • Has remote replication

    • Has an OS

    • Security is problematic

    • Low-level interface moves too many bytes


Why not a 2 d block server put a little on the disk server l.jpg

Why Not a 2-D Block Server?Put A LITTLE on the Disk Server

  • Tried and true design

    • Cedar -> NFS

    • file server, cache, space,..

    • Open file is many fewer msgs

  • Grows to have

    • Directories + Naming

    • Authentication + access control

    • RAID 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 50,…

    • Locking

    • Backup/restore/admin

    • Cooperative caching with client

  • File Servers are a BIG hit: NetWare™

    • SNAP! is my favorite today


Why not a file server put a little on the disk server l.jpg

Why Not a File Server?Put a Little on the Disk Server

  • Tried and true design

    • Auspex, NetApp, ...

    • Netware

  • Yes, but look at NetWare

    • File interface gives you app invocation interface

    • Became an app server

      • Mail, DB, Web,….

    • Netware had a primitive OS

      • Hard to program, so optimized wrong thing


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Why Not Everything?Allow Everything on Disk Server(thin client’s)

  • Tried and true design

    • Mainframes, Minis, ...

    • Web servers,…

    • Encapsulates data

    • Minimizes data moves

    • Scaleable

  • It is where everyone ends up.

  • All the arguments against are short-term.


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The Slippery Slope

Nothing =

Sector Server

  • If you add function to server

  • Then you add more function to server

  • Function gravitates to data.

Something =

Fixed App Server

Everything =

App Server


Disk node l.jpg

Disk = Node

  • has magnetic storage (100 GB?)

  • has processor & DRAM

  • has SAN attachment

  • has execution environment

Applications

Services

DBMS

RPC, ...

File System

SAN driver

Disk driver

OS Kernel


Technology drivers system on a chip l.jpg

Technology Drivers: System on a Chip

  • Integrate Processing with memory on one chip

    • chip is 75% memory now

    • 1MB cache >> 1960 supercomputers

    • 256 Mb memory chip is 32 MB!

    • IRAM, CRAM, PIM,… projects abound

  • Integrate Networking with processing on one chip

    • system bus is a kind of network

    • ATM, FiberChannel, Ethernet,.. Logic on chip.

    • Direct IO (no intermediate bus)

  • Functionally specialized cards shrink to a chip.


Technology drivers what if networking was as cheap as disk io l.jpg

TCP/IP

Unix/NT 100% cpu @ 40MBps

Disk

Unix/NT 8% cpu @ 40MBps

Why the Difference?

Host does

TCP/IP packetizing,

checksum,…

flow control

small buffers

Host Bus Adapter does

SCSI packetizing,

checksum,…

flow control

DMA

Technology Drivers: What if Networking Was as Cheap As Disk IO?


Technology drivers the promise of san via 10x in 2 years http www viarch org l.jpg

Technology Drivers: The Promise of SAN/VIA:10x in 2 yearshttp://www.viarch.org/

  • Today:

    • wires are 10 MBps (100 Mbps Ethernet)

    • ~20 MBps tcp/ip saturates 2 cpus

    • round-trip latency is ~300 us

  • In the lab

    • Wires are 10x faster Myrinet, Gbps Ethernet, ServerNet,…

    • Fast user-level communication

      • tcp/ip ~ 100 MBps 10% of each processor

      • round-trip latency is 15 us


San standard interconnect l.jpg

RIP

FDDI

RIP

ATM

RIP

FC

RIP

SCI

RIP

?

RIP

SCSI

SAN: Standard Interconnect

Gbps Ethernet: 110 MBps

  • LAN faster than memory bus?

  • 1 GBps links in lab.

  • 100$ port cost soon

  • Port is computer

PCI: 70 MBps

UW Scsi: 40 MBps

FW scsi: 20 MBps

scsi: 5 MBps


Technology drivers 100 gbps ethernet replaces scsi l.jpg

Technology Drivers:100 GBps Ethernet replaces SCSI

  • Why I love SCSI

    • Its fast (40MBps)

    • The protocol uses little processor power

  • Why I hate SCSI

    • Wires must be short

    • Cables are pricy

    • pins bend


Functionally specialized cards l.jpg

Functionally Specialized Cards

P mips processor

Today:

P=50 mips

M= 2 MB

ASIC

  • Storage

  • Network

  • Display

M MB DRAM

In a few years

P= 200 mips

M= 64 MB

ASIC

ASIC


Technology drivers plug play software l.jpg

Technology DriversPlug & Play Software

  • RPC is standardizing: (DCOM, IIOP, HTTP)

    • Gives huge TOOL LEVERAGE

    • Solves the hard problems for you:

      • naming,

      • security,

      • directory service,

      • operations,...

  • Commoditized programming environments

    • FreeBSD, Linix, Solaris,…+ tools

    • NetWare + tools

    • WinCE, WinNT,…+ tools

    • JavaOS + tools

  • Apps gravitate to data.

  • General purpose OS on dedicated ctlr can run apps.


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Basic Argument for x-Disks

  • Future disk controller is a super-computer.

    • 1 bips processor

    • 128 MB dram

    • 100 GB disk plus one arm

  • Connects to SAN via high-level protocols

    • RPC, HTTP, DCOM, Kerberos, Directory Services,….

    • Commands are RPCs

    • management, security,….

    • Services file/web/db/… requests

    • Managed by general-purpose OS with good dev environment

  • Move apps to disk to save data movement

    • need programming environment in controller


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