Realization of a cycle
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Realization of A Cycle. P M V Subbarao Professor Mechanical Engineering Department I I T Delhi. How to Create Temperature and Pressure…..?. Power Generation Cycle. Goal: To generate Mechanical Power through from heat input !!! Question: What is the Upper Limit of Cycle Performance?

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Realization of A Cycle

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Realization of a cycle

Realization of A Cycle

P M V Subbarao

Professor

Mechanical Engineering Department

I I T Delhi

How to Create Temperature and Pressure…..?


Power generation cycle

Power Generation Cycle

Goal: To generate Mechanical Power through from heat input !!!

Question: What is the Upper Limit of Cycle Performance?

Can You Predict?

Is it essential to try and find out using only on the field Test?


A mathematical model for james watt s steam engine

expansion

Heat Addition

Heat Removal

A Mathematical Model for (James Watt’s) Steam Engine


Carnot s model for power cycle

Carnot’s Model for Power Cycle


Realization of a cycle

Carnot’s Model for Power Cycle

s

1 – 2 : Compressor : Isentropic Compression : s2 = s1

2 – 3 : Boiler: Isothermal Heating : T3 = T2

3 – 4 : Turbines : Isentropic Expansion : s4 = s3

4 – 1 : Condenser: Isothermal Cooling : T1 = T4


The carnot cycle vs the natural cycles

The Carnot Cycle Vs The Natural Cycles

Ability to Perform

Ecological Nuisance


Realization of a cycle1

Realization of A Cycle

  • Heat Addition in Steam Generator, qin

  • Creation of Parameters of A Cycle

  • Resource: Sources of Energy

  • Mean Effective Temperature of heat addition : Entropy averaged Temperature.


Analysis of a cycle

Efficiency,

Analysis of A Cycle

  • Net work out put =

  • Heat Input =


Realization of a cycle

  • The selection of working fluids and operation conditions are very important to system performance.

  • The thermodynamic properties of working fluids will affect the system efficiency, operation, and environmental impact.

  • Basically, the working fluid can be classified into three categories.

  • Those are dry, isentropic, and wet depending on the slope of the T–S curve (dT/dS) to be positive, infinite, and negative, respectively.

  • The working fluids of dry or isentropic type are more appropriate for power generation.

  • This is because dry or isentropic fluids are superheated after isentropic expansion, thereby eliminating the concerns of impingement of liquid droplets on the turbine blades.

  • Moreover, the superheated apparatus is not needed.


Realization of a cycle

Organic Substances must be selected

in accordance to the heat source

temperature level (Tcr < Tin source)


Selection of fluids

Selection of Fluids

  • RC (Single Componant Working Fluid)

  • Evaporation and condensation at fixed temperatures

  • Fluid must be selected in accordance to the temperature level of the heat source

  • Pinch point is limiting factor for heat transfer

  • Environmental impacts and restrictions by using organic substances

  • Inflamable and/or toxic and/or GWP (Global Warming Potential) and/or ODP

  • (Ozone Depletion Potential)


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